Discuss and illustrate out the dissimilar kinds of transaction failures. What do you understand by catastrophic failure?
Discuss and illustrate out the actions which are taken by the read_item and prepare_item operations on the database.
What is the system log employed for? What are the typical types of entries in the system log? What are checkpoints, and why are they significant?
What are transaction commit points, and why are they significant?
How are caching and buffering methods employed by recovery subsystem?
What are the before image (BFIM) and after image (AFIM) of the data item? What is the differentiation between in-place updating and shadowing, with respect to their handling of the BFIM and AFIM?
What do you understand by the term UNDO-type and REDO-type log entries?
Illustrate out the prepare-ahead logging protocol.