problem 1: How is DBMS classified based on several criteria? Describe each one of them with some exs wherever required
problem 2: Distinguish between B+ tree and B- tree. Describe them with diagrams.
Using the above tables answer the given problem
a) If we want to see all the employees with salary between 40000 and 50000, which query can be used?
b) Select employee name from EMPLOYEE table, whose name begins with R.
c) Describe aggregate functions and grouping in detail.
problem 4: What are the problems and failures which might encounter with respect to the transactions in a database management system? Give illustrations.
problem 5: Consider any database of your choice (may be simple banking database/forecasting database/project management database). Show the deduction of the tables in your database to the different kinds of normal forms.
problem 6: Read the given case study thoroughly and answer the given problems:
XYZ bank is one of the largest private sector banks. It has an extensive network of more than 200 branches. It provides banking services to retail as well as corporate clients. The bank faced a challenge in integrating multi-pronged database management system into a centralized system. The IT department of the bank as well realized that the computing capabilities of its PCs and servers were not proportionately distributed among all its branches. Each branch had its database management system stored in a traditional way on the disk. The total cost of operating and maintaining the current IT infrastructure was very high and the fundamental shortcomings added to the costs. Furthermore, there were as well recurrent problems due to the malfunctioning of the currently operational database management system. Thus, the bank’s top management decided to fix the problem and operationalise a robust database management system. The bank hired an external database technology consulting firm termed as AKPY Info systems Limited.
AKPY divided the whole IT infrastructure of the bank around two verticals. The retail banking vertical and the corporate banking vertical. All the individual database servers from the individual branches were removed. The whole database system was made virtual such that the managers and the staff can access only the required information (related to retail banking or corporate banking) from the respective centralized data centers. There were only two such centralized data centers (one for retail banking and another for corporate banking) that were managed centrally. Staff and managers could access the information through their PCs and laptops. Centralized database management system complemented the security system by bringing in authentication through a unified ID management server. Managers and officers of the bank were able to process half a million transactions per month in real time after the new implementation. There were significant savings in the cost and as well in the consumption of power. Now there were no problems with regard to imbalances in the load across different network servers. Due to centralized data management, top management could keep an eye on the functioning of different branches. Therefore the cases of fraud and cheating reduced considerably. The bank managers could as well process the loan applications in reduced time as the customer’s previous records could be accessed at the click of the button and approval from the higher authorities could be obtained in real time. Furthermore the new system also brought in many applications which helped local managers in the decision making process.
a) List the uses of centralized data management.
b) What steps XYZ bank need to take if it were to change its centralized database system to a distributed database system in future?