Solve the following problems.
problem 1) Compute the total time required to transfer 1500 KByte file in the following cases, assuming a RTT of 10ms, a packet size of 1500 bytes, and the initial 3 RTT of handshaking before the actual data is sent.
(a) The bandwidth is 10 Mbps and data packets can be sent continuously.
(b) The bandwidth is 10 Mbps, but after we finish sending each data packet we must wait one RTT before sending the next
(c) The bandwidth is infinite, i.e., the transmit time is zero, but only up to 25 packets can be sent per RTT
problem 2) This problem demonstrate possible danger of incorporating randomization in design. Let A and B be two stations attempting to transmit on the ethernet. Each has the steady queue of frames ready to send; A’s frames will be numbered A_{1}, A_{2} and so on, and B’s similarly. Let T = 51.2μs is the exponential backoff base unit. Assume A and B simultaneously attempt to send frame 1, collide, and happen to choose backoff times of 0 x T and 1 x T, respectively. Therefore, A transmits A_{1} while B waits. At the end of this transmission, B will attempt to retransmit B_{1} while A will attempt to transmit A_{2}. These first attempts will collide, but now A backs off for either 0 x T or 1 x T, while B backs off for time equal to one of 0 x T, ..., 3 X T.
(a) Determine the probability that A wins this second backoff race immediately after its first collision.
(b) Suppose A wins the second backoff race. A transmits A_{2} and, when it is finished, A and B collide again as A tries to transmit A_{3} while B tries once more to transmit B_{1}. Determine the probability that A wins this third backoff race immediately after the first collision.
(c) Provide a reasonable lower bound for the probability that A wins all the remaining backoff races.
(d) What then happens to frame B_{1}? This situation is called as the ethernet capture effect.