AUTOMATA THEORY
Automata Theory is a theoretical and an exciting branch of the computer science. It established its roots during 20th Century, as mathematicians began developing both the theoretically and the literally - machines which imitated the certain features of man, completing calculations more reliably and quickly. The word automaton itself, closely related to word "automation", it denotes the automatic processes carrying out the production of the specific processes. Simply stated, the automata theory deals with logic of computation with respect to the simple machines, which referred to as automata. Through automata, computer scientists are able to understand how machines compute the functions and solve problems and more prominently, what it means for a function to be defined as the computable or for a question to be described as decidable.
One of the major objectives of the automata theory is to develop the methods by which computer scientists can describe and analyze dynamic behavior of discrete systems, in which signals are sampled sporadically. Behavior of these discrete systems is determined by the way that system is constructed from the storage and the combinational elements.
There are four main families of automaton:
1. Finite-State Machine
2. Pushdown Automata
3. Linear-bounded Automata
4. Turing Machine
COMPUTABILITY THEORY
Computability theory deals mainly with the question of extent to which a problem is solvable on a computer system. The statement that halting the problem cannot be solved by a Turing machine is one of most important results in computability theory, as it is the example of a concrete problem that is both easy to formulate and impossible to solve the using a Turing machine. A lot of computability theory builds on halting problem result.
A different important step in the computability theory was Rice's theorem, which states that for all the non-trivial properties of partial functions, it is undecidable whether the Turing machine computes on a partial function with that property.
The computability theory is closely related to branch of the mathematical logic called the recursion theory, which removes restriction of studying only models of the computation which are reducible to Turing model. Many of the mathematicians and computational theorists who study recursion theory will refer to it as computability theory.
BASIC SUMMARY OF AUTOMATA
Automata theory is one of the longest recognized areas in the Computer Science. Over past few years, Automata theory has not only developed in many different directions, but has also evolved in an exciting way at some levels: exploration of the specific new models and the applications has at same time stimulated a variety of the deep mathematical theories. This project proposes a set of the co-ordinate actions for the advancing theory of automata and for increasing its application to challenging the scientific problems.
Standard applications of automata theory include the syntax analysis, pattern matching and software verification. In recent years, novel applications of the automata-theoretic concepts have emerged from the biology, cognitive sciences, physics, control, neurosciences, linguistics, tomography, mathematics, etc., while developments in the information technology have increased the need for formally-based design and the verification methods to cope with the emerging technical needs as mobile intelligent devices, network security and high performance computing.
BASIC SUMMARY OF COMPUTATION
Computing has dramatically influenced the growth in the engineering, science, business and many other areas of the human endeavor. In today's world, nearly everyone needs to use computers, and many will want to study the computing in some form. Computing will continue to present the challenging career opportunities, and those who job in the computing will have a vital role in shaping the future. It is important that computing disciplines attar act superiority students from a broad cross section of population and prepare them to be the capable and responsible professionals, engineers and scientists. Over the years, the professional and the scientific computing society as based in U.S. have taken a leading role in providing support for the higher education in different ways, including formulation of the curriculum guidelines. Several reports that define and update the guidelines for computing curricula have appeared over past four decades. Recent efforts have the targeted international participation, reflecting need for the leading professional organizations to become truly global in the scope and responsibility.
Automata Simulators
Automata simulators are the pedagogical tools used to learn, research and teach the automata theory. An automata simulator takes as input description of an automaton and then simulates its working for an arbitrary input string. The description of automaton can be entered in numerous ways. An automaton can be defined in a symbolic language or its specification may be entered in a predesigned form and its transition diagram may be drawn by the clicking and by dragging the mouse. The well known automata simulators include the Turing's World, VAS, JFLAP, SimStudio and TAGS.
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