INRODUCTION
Cryptography is a method of transmitting and storing the data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is planned can process and read it. The term is most often associated with the scrambling plaintext (sometimes referred to as cleartext) into ciphertext (called encryption), then back again (known as the decryption).
Cryptography is closely related to disciplines of cryptology and the cryptanalysis. Cryptography includes the techniques such as the microdots, merging words with images, and the other ways to hide the information in transit or storage. However, in today's computer-centric world, the cryptography is the most often associated with the scrambling plaintext into ciphertext, then back again (known as decryption). Individuals who practice this field are known as the cryptographers.
The modern cryptography concerns itself with following four objectives:
1) Confidentiality: - In this the information cannot be understood by the anyone for whom it was unintended.
2) Integrity: - In this the information cannot be altered in transit or storage between the sender and the intended receiver without alteration being detected.
3) Non-repudiation:- In this the creator/sender of information cannot deny at a later stage his or her intentions in creation or transmission of information.
4) Authentication: - The sender and receiver can confirm each other's identity and the origin or destination of information.
TYPES OF ALGORITHMS IN CRYPTOGRAPHIC
There are several ways of classifying the cryptographic algorithms. For purposes of this paper, they will be categorized based on number of keys that are employed for the encryption and the decryption, and further defined by their application and the use.
* Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both the encryption and the decryption process.
* Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for the encryption and another for the decryption.
* Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly the "encrypt" information.
Cryptography Today
Today, cryptography is embedded in all the aspects of your life to protect the privacy. When you connect your computer to Internet to browse, login or to e-mail onto your favorite social network, that connection is secured by the TLS (Transport Layer Security). TLS protocol uses the strong cryptography to prevent the eavesdropping, message forgery and tampering. And it is not only your personal computer that uses the encryption. If we go shopping, our customer card is scanned and the cryptography protects the personal data of customers. If you pay with your bank card in a shop, or draw the money from an ATM, the transaction is securely processed by your bank. Information on chip of your ID card and the health insurance card are encrypted. When you call someone with your mobile phone, your digitized voice is encrypted to prevent the eavesdropping. The remote key of central locking system of your car communicates with your car to generate the unique keys, protected by the cryptography. The most important benefit of the cryptography is certainly privacy. Today our lives are the completely digitized. Nearly all your private information is stored in one of many databases from the police, government, city services, banks, commercial holdings, the health care services and so on.
ADVANTAGES OF CRYPTOGRAPHY
1) Cryptography hides the message and your privacy is safe.
2) No one would be able to know that what it says unless there is a key to code.
3) You can write whatever you want and how ever you want to keep your code a secret.
4) You are able to utilize the Cryptography during the lessons without teacher knowing. (But will take the long to make code, to figure it out and to make a key)
DISADVANTAGES OF CRYPTOGRAPHY
1) It takes a long time to figure out a code.
2) Cryptography takes the long to create the code.
3) If you were to send a code to the person in past, it will take the long to get to that person.
4) Overall the cryptography it's a long process.
CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS
There are of course a wide range of the cryptographic algorithms in use. The following are the algorithms which are used in cryptography-
DES: The DES is the 'Data Encryption Standard'. This is a cipher that operates on the 64-bit blocks of data, using a 56-bit key. DES is a 'private key' system.
RSA: The RSA is a public-key system designed by the Rivest, Adleman and Shamir.
HASH: The 'hash algorithm' is used for the computing a condensed representation of a permanent (fixed) length message or file. This is also known as a 'message digest', or a 'fingerprint'.
MD5: The MD5 is a 128 bit message digest function. This was developed by the Ron Rivest.
AES: AES is the Advanced Encryption Standard (using Rijndael block cipher) approved by the NIST.
SHA-1: The SHA-1 is a hashing algorithm similar in structure to the MD5, but producing a digest of 160 bits (i.e. 20 bytes).Because of large digest size, it is less likely that two diverse messages will have same SHA-1 message digest. For this reason SHA-1 is the recommended in preference to the MD5.
HMAC: HMAC is a hashing method that uses a key in the conjunction with an algorithm such as the MD5 or SHA-1. Thus one can refer to the HMAC-MD5 and the HMAC-SHA1.
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