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What is UNIX?

An operating system developed by the Ken Thompson and the Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Laboratories in late 1960′s.

In the 1978 AT&T's the Unix seventh edition was divide off into the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).

The AT&T SVR5 spawned several the other commercial versions of the Unix including:

1.AIX (IBM)

2.HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard)

3.Apple's OS-X is also based on a Unix derivative (BSD, then NextStep)

4.IRIX (Silicon Graphics)

5.The Sun Solaris

6.Plus many others variants.

7.Digital Unix / Tru64 Unix (the Digital Equipment Corporation)

What is Linux?

*Linux is a freely available version of UNIX operating system.

*Started by the Linus Torvalds in the year1991.

*The Programmers from around the world donate code

*The Main portion of the Linux: Linux Kernel.

It can be downloaded from a number of sites (like www.linux.org) as well as purchased in the packages (called the distributions) from the companies such as:

1.The CentOS (Website: www.centos.org)

2.The RedHat (Website: www.redhat.com)

3.The Debian (Website: www.debian.org)

4.The Suse (the Website: www.suse.com).

5.The Ubuntu (Website: www.ubuntu.com/)

It runs on the Intel 486, the Pentium (and better) processors as well as the Sun Sparc, the DEC Alpha and the dozens of the other processors (e.g., Xbox).

The Ways of installing/using Unix / Linux:

Install the Linux on a separate drive or the hard drive panel. This approach offers the most robust and the complete Linux experience but it requires most work and the knowledge to set up correctly.

Boot up and the use of Linux from a DVD or the USB Drive. These approaches permit you to speedily try out the some Linux commands without having to enduringly install an operating system.

Run the Linux from within the another operating system (like the Windows) (Consider this version of the PenDrive Linux that runs within the Windows). This approach permits you to run the Linux "within" the Windows at same time so that you can switch the back and forth simply.

Run the Linux from within a virtual machine such as the Virtual Box or the Parallels. This approach also permits you to run the Linux "within" the Windows at same time so that you can switch back and forth easily. It requires a bit more work to get the set up correctly however.

For the Mac OS-X users, most of commands or techniques discussed here are available by using Terminal program found in Applications or Utilities folder. If you have the OS-X this is an rapid way to take started.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LINUX AND UNIX

Linux Is Just a Kernel

All the Linux distributions includes the GUI system + GNU utilities (such as the mv, cp, date, ls, bash etc) + installation & the management tools + GNU c/c ++ the Compilers + the Editors (vi) + and the various applications (such as the Open Office, the Firefox). However, the most UNIX operating systems are measured as the complete operating system as everything come from a single source.

License and cost

Linux is Free. We can download it from Internet or the redistribute it under the GNU licenses. You will see best community support for the Linux. The Most UNIX like the operating systems are not free. However, some Linux distributions such as the Redhat / Novell provides the additional Linux fixing, support and the training for the additional fees.

User-Friendly

Linux is measured as the most user friendly UNIX like the operating systems. It makes it simple to install the flash players, sound card and the other desktop goodies. However, the Apple OS X is the most popular UNIX operating system for the desktop usage.

How To Use Pwd Command In Linux / UNIX?

The pwd command is an acronym for the print working directory. The pwd command is measured as one of most frequently used commands on the AIX, Linux, *BSD, HP-UX and the other UNIX like operating systems along with  ls, and the cd commands. It can be used for following purposes under the Apple OS X or the UNIX or the Linux operating systems:

1)Find the full path to current directory (index).

2)Store full path to the current directory in a shell variable.

3)Authenticate the absolute (complete) path.

4)Verify the physical path i.e. the exclude a symbolic links.

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