Answer the following problems.
problem1) Give an ex each for the following:
i) Bio-indicators of airpollution
ii) Primary consumers
iii) Perfect biogeochemical cycle
v) Extinct species
problem2) Define the term Ecology. List its subdivisions and describe giving exs as to which area of study each of the subdivisions deal with?
problem3) Make a clear and labelled diagram showing the Earth at equinoxes and solstices during a year and the days of their occurrence.
problem4) prepare the important points about energy flow in an ecosystem.
problem5) Describe the ecological effects of overgrazing and deforestation.
problem6) describe the unique features of estuaries and the biotic communities occurring therein.
problem7) How is the Importance Value Index (IVI) of a species determined? What information does one get about a species from this Index?
problem8) Enumerate the changes which are characteristic of ecological succession.
problem9) Describe citing exs, how ‘grazing facilitation’ helps different animal populations to coexist?
problem10) describe the consequences of various forms of water pollution.
problem11) How the Carbon Cycle has been impacted in the recent years? Describe the fallouts of these impacts.
problem12) Prepare a detailed account on water or soil with the ecological outlook.
problem13) Briefly describe the characteristics of populations which are not the characteristics of its individuals.
problem14) Present a researched account on the Chipko Movement.
problem15) Make an age structure diagram of a population with data given below. Interpret this diagram with respect to its present status and its future.
Age group % of males in the population % of females in the population
0-5 3.2 3.1
6-10 4.0 3.9
11-15 4.8 4.1
16-20 4.5 4.2
21-25 4.2 4.2
26-30 4.6 4.3
31-35 4.0 3.7
36-40 3.2 3.2
41-45 3.4 3.3
46-50 3.2 3.2
51-55 2.8 2.8
56-60 2.1 2.2
61-65 1.6 2.3
66-70 1.0 1.7
71-75 0.9 1.5
76-80 0.7 1.3
81-85 0.4 1.2
86 onwards 0.3 0.9