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CONCEPT OF HISTORY

The word 'History' in the simpler terms is study of past. the word 'history' is derived from greek word 'historia'. A Indian history is divided into the three parts - the  Ancient, the Medieval and the Modern. Overall the history is divided into two parts Pre and the Proto History.

Pre history: The word Prehistory has been formed of the two words - Pre (Latin) which means 'before' and the Greek word 'historia' which means the History. The word is often used to describe period before the written history. The Paul Tournal originally coined a term the Pré-historique in describing findings he had made in caves of the southern France. It came into use in the French in 1830s to describe time before the writing, and was introduced into the English by the Daniel Wilson in the 1851. The Prehistory can be said to date back to beginning of universe itself, although term is most often used to describe the periods when there was life on the Earth; dinosaurs can be described as the prehistoric animals and the cavemen are described as the prehistoric people.

Proto history: The Protohistory refers to a period between the prehistory and the history, during which a culture or the civilization has not yet developed the writing, but the other cultures have already noted its instance in their own writings. For example, in the Europe, Celts and Germanic tribes may be measured to have been the protohistoric when they began appearing in the Greek and the Roman texts. The Protohistoric may also refer to transition period between advent of literacy in a society and writings of first historians. The preservation of the oral traditions may complicate the matters as these can provide a secondary historical source for even the earlier events. The Colonial sites involving a educated group and the non-literate group, are also studied as the protohistoric situations.

PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY

Philosophy of history is a branch of the philosophy concerning eventual meaning, if any, of the human history. Furthermore, it considers as to a possible teleological end to its the development-that is, it asks if there is a purpose, design, the directive principle, or finality in processes of the human history. The Philosophy of history should not be confused with the historiography, which is study of the history as an academic discipline, and thus concerns its methods and the practices, and its development as a discipline over the time. Nor should philosophy of history be confused with history of the philosophy, which is t study of development of the philosophical ideas through the time.

AREAS OF STUDY

Periods: The historical study often focuses on the events and the developments that occur in the particular blocks of time. The Historians give these periods of the time names in order to allow the "organising ideas and classificatory the generalizations" to be used by the historians.

Geographical locations: The Particular geographical locations can form basis of the historical study, for example, countries, continents and the cities. Understanding why the historic events took place is significant.

Military history: The Military history concerns the warfare, battles, strategies, psychology of combat and weapons.. The "new military history" since 1970s has been concerned with the soldiers more than the generals, with the psychology more than tactics, and with broader impact of the warfare on the society and the culture.

History of religion: History of the religion has been a major theme for both the secular and the religious historians for the centuries, and the continues to be taught in the seminaries and the academe. Leading journals include the Church History, the Catholic Historical Review, and the History of Religions.

Social history: The Social history, sometimes called the new social history, is field that includes the history of ordinary people and their strategies and the institutions for coping with the life. In its "golden age" it was a major growth field in 1960s and the 1970s among scholars, and still is well represented in the history departments.

Cultural history: The Cultural history replaced the social history as dominant form in 1980s and the 1990s. It usually combines approaches of the anthropology and the history to look at language, the popular cultural traditions and the cultural interpretations of the historical experience. It examines records and the narrative descriptions of the past knowledge, arts and customs of a group of people. The Cultural history includes study of the art in society as well is study of the images and the human visual production.

Diplomatic history: Diplomatic history, sometimes referred to as the "Rankian History" honor of the Leopold von Ranke, focuses on the politics, the politicians and the other high rulers and views them as being driving force of the continuity and the change in history. This type of the political history is study of conduct of the international relations between the states or across the state boundaries over time. This is most common form of the history and is often classical and the popular belief of what the history should be.

Economic history: Although economic history has been well established since late 19th century, in the recent years the academic studies have shifted more and more toward the economics departments and away from the traditional history departments.

Environmental history: The Environmental history is a new field that emerged in 1980s to look at history of environment, especially in long run, and impact of the human activities upon it.

World history: The World history is study of the major civilizations over last 3000 years or so. The World history is primarily a teaching field, rather than the research field. It gained popularity in United States, Japan and the other countries after 1980s with realization that the students need a broader exposure to world as the globalization proceeds.

Historiometry: The Historiometry is a historical study of the human progress or the individual personal characteristics, by using the statistics to analyze the references to eminent persons, their, behavior, statements and the discoveries in relatively the neutral texts.

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