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The Earth sciences are an all embracing term for sciences related to planet Earth. They are special type of planetary sciences. Which deal with structure and the composition of Earth, physical features, its origins, changing aspects, and all of the natural phenomena? Earth is a only planet known to have life and hence only planet with the biological processes and the biosphere.

The major disciplines of the Earth sciences use the mathematics, physics, and chemistry to build the quantitative understanding of principal areas and spheres of Earth system. As in many of sciences, the Earth can be studied both experimentally and in theory. there are both reductionist and holistic approaches to the Earth Science.

Although mining and the precious stones have been in the human interests throughout history of the civilization their development into sciences of the economic geology and the mineralogy did not occur until 18th century. The study of particularly paleontology, earth, blossomed in the 19th century and the growth of the other disciplines like the geophysics in the 20th century led to the development of theory of plate tectonics in 1960s, which has had the similar impact on Earth sciences as the theory of the evolution had on biology. The Earth sciences today is closely linked to the environment research and petroleum or mineral exploration industries.


The Earth science and Geosciences is an all-embracing term of referring to the fields of the science dealing with the planet Earth. It is arguably a special branch of the planetary science though with the much older history. There are both reductionist and the holistic approaches to the Earth sciences. The formal discipline of the Earth sciences may include study of atmosphere, oceans, hydrosphere and biosphere, as well as solid earth. Naturally, Earth scientists will use the tools from the physics, biology, chemistry, chronology, and mathematics to build the quantitative understanding of how the Earth system are works and how is it evolved to its current state.

The Earth's interior:

Plate tectonics, volcanoes, mountain ranges, and earthquakes are the geological phenomena that can be explained in the terms of energy transformations in Earth's crust. Beneath the Earth's outside lies the mantle which is the heated by the radioactive decay of the heavy elements. The mantle is not quite solid and the consists of the magma which is in state of semi-perpetual of convection.

The Plate tectonics might be thought of the process by which earth is resurfaced. Through the process called seafloor spreading new crust is the created by flow of the magma from underneath the lithosphere to surface, where it cools and solidifies. Through the process called sub diction, oceanic crust is pressed underground under the rest of lithosphere where it is comes into the contact with magma and melts rejoining the layer from which it is originally came.

The Earth's electromagnetic field:

An electromagnet is the magnet that is created by the current that flows around soft iron core. The Earth has a solid iron to inner core surrounded by the semi-liquid materials of outer core that move in the continuous currents around inner core; the Earth is electromagnet. This is an referred to as dynamo theory of the Earth's magnetism

The Earth's atmosphere;

The thermosphere, troposphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, and exosphere are the five layers in which make up Earth's atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of about the 78.0% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, and the 0.92% argon. 75% of the gases in atmosphere are located within troposphere, bottom-most layer. The remaining one percent of atmosphere contains the small amounts of other gases including the CO2 and water billows.

Methodology of the earth science:

The Methodologies vary depending on the nature of subjects being studied. Studies typically fall into the one of three categories: experimental, observational, or theoretical. The Earth scientists often conduct sophisticated of computer analysis and go to the many of world's most of exotic locations to the study of Earth phenomena.

 Foundational idea within the study and Earth science is notion of the uniformitarians. The Uniformitarian's dictates that ancient geologic features are interpreted by the understanding active processes that are the readily observed. In the other words any geologic processes at the work in present have operated in some ways throughout the geologic time. Enables those who study Earth history to the apply knowledge of how the Earth processes operate in present to gain insight into how the planet has evolved and changed throughout the deep history.

The Earth's spheres:

The Earth science generally recognizes in the four spheres, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere, these correspond to water, rocks, air, and the life. Some of practitioners include as the part of the spheres of Earth the cry sphere as the distinct portion of hydrosphere as well as the pedosphere as an vigorous and the intermixed sphere.

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