problem 1)a) describe following terms
i) surge tank
b) A hydro power station is operating with a average head of 80 meter, which makes use of water collected over a catchment area of 100 Km2 over which the average annual rainfall is 400m3 with a evaporation loss of 30%. Assume the turbine efficiency as 90% and the alternator efficiency as 80%. Determine the average power that can be generated.
problem 2)a) With the help of neat sketch describe general layout of thermal power plant.
b) On what principle stokers are classified? describe Chain grate stoker.
problem 3)a) With the help of neat diagram describe pressure water reactor in nuclear power plant and mention the advantages and disadvantages.
b) describe the advantages of diesel power plants over thermal power plants.
problem 4)a) A plant costs Rs. 107 and it is estimated that after 25 years it will have to be replaced by a new one. At the instant its salvage value will be Rs.1*106/-. find out:
(i) Annual deposit to be made in order to replace the plant after 25 years
(ii) The value of plant after 10 years using the following methods:
(a) Straight line method
(b) Reducing balance method
(c) Sinking fund method, if the annual compound interest is 10%.
b) The incremental fuel costs for two generating units A and B of a power plant are given by following equations:
dfa/dpa 0.065 pa + 25
dfb/dpb 0.08 pb + 20
Where F is fuel cost in rupees/hour and P is power output in MW. Find out
(i) The economical loading of two units when the total load supplied by the plant is 160MW.
(ii) The loss in fuel cost per hour, if the load is equally shared by both units.
problem 5) The yearly duration curve of a certain plant can be considered as a straight line from 140 MW to 30 MW. Power is supplied with one generating unit of 95 MW capacity and two units of 45 MW capacity each. Determine
(i) Installed capacity
(ii) Load factor
(iii) Plant capacity factor
(iv) Maximum demand
(v) Utilization factor.
b) What is tariff? describe different types of tariff.
problem 6) A consumer has a constant load of 800kW at a lagging p.f. of 0.72 year for 6520 hours a year. The tariff is Rs. 500 / kVA of maximum demand annually and 0.5 Rs / kWh. The annual cost of power factor correction equipment is Rs. 160 per kVAR. find out the annual savings if the p.f. is improved to most economical limit.
b) Discuss the various classes of substations defining individually each one of them.