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TECHNIQUES OF GENETIC ENGINEERING

There are a variety of techniques used to genetically engineer the organisms. The first step involves the choosing and isolating gene that will be inserted into genetically modified organism. Most genes transferred into the plants provide the protection against the insects or tolerance to the herbicides. In animals, the majority of genes used are the growth hormone genes. The gene can be isolated using the restriction enzymes to cut DNA into fragments and the gel electrophoresis to separate them out according to the length. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can also be used to amplify up a gene segment, which can then be isolated through the gel electrophoresis. The gene to be inserted into genetically modified organism must be combined with the other genetic elements in order for it to work properly. As well as gene to be inserted the most constructs contain a promoter and the terminator region as well as a selectable marker gene. The promoter region initiates the transcription of gene and can be used to control location and the level of gene expression, while the terminator region ends transcription. The selectable marker, which in the most cases confers antibiotic resistance to organism it is expressed in, is needed to conclude which cells are transformed with new gene. BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING

Bimolecular engineering is application of the engineering principles and the practices to purposeful manipulation of the molecules of the biological origin. Bimolecular engineers integrate the knowledge of the biological processes with core knowledge of the chemical engineering in order to focus on the molecular level solutions to issues and problems in life sciences related to agriculture, environment, industry, energy, biotechnology, food production and medicine. The Bimolecular engineers purposefully manipulate the carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins and lipids within framework of relation between their structure, function  and properties and in relation to the applicability to such areas as environmental remediation, the crop and the live stock production, the bio fuel cells and the bimolecular diagnostics. Bimolecular engineers are leading major shift towards the understanding and controlling molecular mechanisms that define the life as we know it.

PROCESS ENGINEERING

The Process engineering focuses on operation, design and control, optimization of the chemical, biological and physical processes. Process engineering encompasses a huge range of the industries, such as petrochemical, chemical, advanced material, mineral processing, pharmaceutical, food, biotechnological industries and software development. Application of the systematic computer-based methods to process engineering is process the systems engineering.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

The division of engineering concerned with environment and the management of the natural resources. The environmental engineer places the special attention on biological, physical and chemical reactions in air, water and , land environments and on the improved technology for the integrated management systems, including the recycling, recovery and reuse measures. The Environmental engineering began with the consideration of need for the acceptable drinking water and for the management of solid and liquid wastes. Abatement of the air and the land contamination became the new challenges for environmental engineer, followed by the toxic-waste and the hazardous-waste concerns. Environmental engineer is also instrumental in mitigation and the protection of wildlife habitat, the preservation of species, and overall well-being of the ecosystems.

The principal of environmental engineering specialties are the water supply, air-quality control, storm water management, wastewater disposal, hazardous-waste management and solid-waste management.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Industrial engineering directs the proficient conduct of the manufacturing, transportation, construction, or even the commercial enterprises of any undertaking, indeed in which the human labor is directed to accomplishing the any kind of work. Industrial engineering has drawn upon the mechanical engineering, upon the economics, psychology, sociology, accountancy, philosophy to fuse from these older sciences a distinct body of the science of its own. It is inclusion of economic and the human elements especially that differentiate the industrial engineering from older established branches of profession.

AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Aerospace engineering, also called the Aeronautical engineering, or the Astronautically engineering,  the field of engineering concerned with design, construction, testing, development and the operation of vehicles operating in Earth's atmosphere or in the outer space. In 1958 first definition of the aerospace engineering appeared, considering Earth's atmosphere and space above it as a single realm for the development of the flight vehicles.

NAVAL ENGINEERING

Naval architecture also known as the Naval engineering is an engineering discipline dealing with construction, design, operation and maintenance of the marine vessels and the structures. Naval architecture involves the basic and the applied research, development, design, design evaluation and the calculations during all stages of life of a marine vehicle. The Preliminary design of vessel, construction, its detailed design, operation and maintenance, trials, launching and the dry-docking are main activities involved. The Ship design calculations are also required for the ships being modified. The  Naval architecture also involves the formulation of the safety regulations and the damage control rules and approval and the certification of the ship designs to meet statutory and the non-statutory requirements.

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