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1. Which of the following statements about the damaging effects of light and UV radiation is NOT correct?
a. Proteins of the photosynthesis apparatus may become damaged by radiation.
b. Ozone prevents UV-A and UV-B radiation from reaching the surface of the Earth.
c. Ultraviolet radiation may ionize important molecules like DNA.
d. Melanin prevents radiation damage by absorbing UV radiation.
e. Carotenoids have a protective function for photosystems.

2. Ommatidia are
a. single cells that act as photoreceptors.
b. eyespots in some protists.
c. crucial pigments of photosynthesis.
d. organs that produce bioluminescence.
e. units of compound eyes of insects.

3. Which of the following statements about bioluminescence is correct?
a. It is only found in marine organisms.
b. ATP is produced in the process of bioluminescence.
c. Energy input is required.
d. A large amount of heat is produced.
e. Bioluminescence is triggered by UV radiation.

4. Which of the following properties does NOT apply to viruses?
a. They have their own metabolism.
b. They have nucleic acids (DNA or RNA).
c. They can evolve.
d. They can reproduce.
e. They can infect living cells.

5. Which of the following structures are absent in bacteria?
a. ribosomes
b. cell walls
c. nucleoids
d. mitochondria
e. plasma membranes

6. Which of the following is NOT true for bacteria?
a. They have a higher surface-volume ratio than eukaryotes.
b. They are more versatile than eukaryotes with regard to metabolism.
c. They use ATP for energy storage.
d. They have an extensive endomembrane system.
e. They have electron transport chains.

7. Which of the following answers is NOT true for photoautotrophs?
a. They use organic substances as a carbon source.
b. They use light as an energy source.
c. They include plants.
d. They include some photosynthetic bacteria.
e. They require CO2.

8. Which of the following argument(s) support(s) the idea of evolution?
a. All organisms have the same genetic code.
b. All organisms use ATP as their energy currency.
c. All cells have membranes with lipid bilayers.
d. Islands have a unique assemblage of species originating from adaptive radiation.
e. all of the above

9. At the equator, the sun shines directly overhead
a. in March.
b. in June.
c. in December.
d. in summer.
e. throughout the year.

10. Which of the following statements about entropy is FALSE?
a. Entropy refers to the second law of thermodynamics.
b. To increase entropy, energy must be used.
c. Organisms eat food to maintain low entropy.
d. Entropy is a measure of disorder.
e. The entropy of the universe is constantly increasing.

11. Which of the following factors influence(s) the performance of an enzyme?
a. pH
b. temperature
c. activators
d. inhibitors
e. all of the above

12. How is ATP used in most cell processes?
a. It binds to a substrate and provides energy when the phosphate group is released.
b. indirectly, by providing electrons to an acceptor
c. Hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to an endergonic reaction.
d. It increases the efficiency of some key enzymes.
e. none of the above

13. Enzymes function by
a. lowering the activation energy required.
b. changing the shape of a substrate.
c. bringing reactants together.
d. exposing a substrate to positive or negative charges.
e. all of the above.

14. Which of the following is TRUE about enzymes?
a. They lower the G of a substrate.
b. They usually have a carbohydrate component.
c. They supply free energy to a reaction.
d. They can be affected by temperature.
e. all of the above

15. Which of the following statements about ATP is NOT true?
a. The concentration of ATP in cells is much higher than that of ADP.
b. The hydrolysis of ATP is an exergonic reaction.
c. The synthesis of ATP is endergonic.
d. The cell continuously regenerates ATP from ADP.
e. When coupled to an endergonic reaction, most of the free energy of ATP is released as heat.

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