1. A pine tree is an ex of what stage of the gymnosperm plant?
2. What tissue is at the very center of a young pine stem?
3. The annual rings are formed from what tissue?
4. Distinguish between spring wood and summer wood.
5. In the outer portion of the twing, the outermost layer is ____ and the inner bark is ____.
6. All plants have the sexual cycle that alternates a diploid ___ generation and haploid ___ generation. The sporophyte forms spores by ___; the gametophyte forms gametes by ___.
7. In mosses, the ____ is dominant (or predominant). In ferns and all other vascular plants, the ___ is predominant.
8. In ferns (and other "seedless vascular plants"), the gametophyte is a free-living, ____ organism. 9. While the fern sporophtye is well adapted to _____, the fern gametophyte is not.
10. In the alternation of generations, the diploid phase produces ___ and is, therefore, called the sporophyte. The haploid phase produces ___ and is, therefore, called the gametophyte.
11. What type of cells is formed in a moss antheridium?
12. What type of cells is formed in a moss archegonium?
13. A live fern leaf (frond) may have brown or black specks called ____ on the underside. The small brown or black cells are ____ that, under the correct conditions, will germinate to form the ____ generation.
14. What tissue transports nutrients and food throughout the tree?
15. What is the substance that leaks from the cut ends of twigs and acts as a defense mechanism?