Answer the following problems.
problem1)(a) Discuss the evolutionary origin of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells.
(b) With the help of diagram differentiate between the functioning of light microscope and transmission electron microscope.
problem2) (a) describe the structure and function of endoplasmic reticulum.
(b) Discuss the monomers of carbohydrates.
problem3)(a) Describe any two types of chemical bonds giving one ex of each.
(b) describe the self assembly of E. coli 70S ribosome.
problem4)(a) What is osmotic pressure and how can it be find outd?
(b) With the help of an ex describe the process of active transport by ion gradients.
problem5) Name the types of enzymes and discuss the genetic control of enzyme action.
problem6) With the help of diagrams show the following.
(a) Four stages of metabolism for generating NADH + H+ and ATP.
(b) Conversion of sucrose into starch in developing seeds.
(c) Conversion of starch into sucrose on germination.
problem7)(a) Describe the structure and function of nuclear envelope of an eukaryotic cell.
(b) Link the steps involved in initiation and termination of polypeptide chain synthesis in eukaryotes.
problem8)(a) describe the role of cyclic AMP as second messenger.
(b) describe the mechanisms of regulation of cell division.
problem9)(a) Draw labelled diagrams showing chromosomal events during the stages of meiosis I.
(b) Describe the concept of intercellular recognition and cell aggregation giving any two exs.
problem10) describe the structure and function of any one type of tissue, each from animals and plants.