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1. What depth cue could be classified as a binocular cue and an oculomotor cue?
A. accomodation
B. accretion
C. stereopsis
D. convergence

2. Of the oculomotor depth cues, convergence is __________ than accommodation.
A. less-effective
B. more effective
C. equally effective
D. less automatic

3. The imaginary place in which all objects project to corresponding points in the left and right retina is
A. the horopter
B. univariance plane
C. constancy arc
D. Air Force One

4. The depth cue of ___________ is most important in the Ponzo (railroad track) illusion.
A. perspective convergence
B. accommodation
C. stereopsis
D. motion parallax

5. According to Gregory's misapplied size constancy scaling hypothesis, we perceive the "arrows pointing out" version of the Muller-Lyer illusion as
A. longer, because it is perceived as being further away
B. longer because it is perceived as being closer
C. shorter, because it is perceived as further away
D. shorter, because it is perceived as being closer

6. A major assumption of the apparent-distance theory of the moon illusion is that they sky overhead
A. appears to be further away than the horizon because of the lack of the depth cue of atmospheric perspective
B. appears to be further away than the horizon because of the depth cue of stereopsis
C. appears to be closer than the horizon because of the lack of depth cues
D. appears to be closer than the horizon because of the depth cue of accommodation

7. Infants tend to look more at objects that
A. are uniformly gray
B. are uniformly black
C. are uniformly white
D. have contours

8. One potential limitation of the preferential looking technique is
A. it cannot be used with grating stimuli
B. it cannot be used to test the acuity of infants younger than four months old
C. an infant may perceive a difference between two stimuli, but would look at each stimulus equally
D. all of these

9. Contrast senstivity functions are a plot of contrast sensitivity as a function of
A. spatial frequency
B. amplitude
C. pitch
D. wavelength

10. Fox et al. (1980) found that the ability to use binocular disparity develops between
A. 1 to 2 months
B. 2 to 3 months
C. 3 1/2 to 6 months
D. 10 to 11 months

11. The ability to use binocular disparity as a depth cue
A. develops after using overlap as a depth cue
B. occurs before binocular fixation develops
C. develops after using familiar size as a depth cue
D. can be tested using random dot stereograms

12. The ability to make visual discriminations between cats and dogs
A. can be done by infants as young as three to four months old
B. can only be accomplished after language develops
C. can only be accomplished if films of the animals, not photos, are used
D. develops after six months, but before language develops

13. Turati et al. (2002) showed that infants prefer stimuli that
A. have more elements in the bottom-half
B. have more elements in the top-half
C. have symmetrical elements in the top and bottom half
D. have a more "face-like" display


14. The ability to perceive a rod as being continuous behind an occluding block
A. is innate
B. is common in one-week old infants
C. can be accomplished by two-month-olds
D. occurs only after sharp acuity is developed

15. Acuity develops to almost 20/20 vision by the time the infant is
A. one month old
B. two months old
C. six months old
D. more than one year old

16. Which of the following is phenomological support for the "opponent-process theory" of color vision?
A. color afterimages
B. visualizing color combinations
C. simultaneous color contrast
D. all of these

17. Honeybees have a cone pigment that maximally absorbs wavelengths of ___ nm.
A. 335
B. 710
C. 900
D. None of the above

18. Which of the following does not need an outer or middle ear to hear effectively?
A. dogs
B. cats
C. fish
D. All of these need outer and middle ears

19. The range of human hearing is between ____ HZ.
A. 10 and 200
B. 10 and 2000
C. 20 and 20,000
D. 20 and 50,000

20. The motion of the organ of Corti causes the hair cells to bend because the hair cells are embedded in the
A. tectorial membrane
B. scala vestibuli
C. scala tympani
D. cochlear partition

21. Hearing loss that occurs as a function of age is called
A. presbyopia
B. presbycusis
C. aural ataxia
D. anosmia

22. Sound that reaches the ears after bouncing off a wall or a floor is called
A. direct sound
B. indirect sound
C. virtual sound
D. harmonics

23. Which of the following factors needs to be considered in architectural acoustics?
A. intimacy time
B. spaciousness factor
C. bass ration
D. all of the above

24. The _______ is the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of the word.
A. formants
B. phonemes
C. tadomas
D. morphemes

25. If a listener is asked to pay attention to speech provided by familiar voices, the ______ is activated, as shown by fMRI studies.
A. FFA
B. STS
C. both the FFA and STS
D. none of the above

26. The discovery of ______ is used as support for the motor theory of speech perception.
A. Broca's area
B. Wernicke's area
C. audiovisual mirror neurons
D. simple cells in area VI

27. Which of the following is not a mechanoreceptor?
A. Pacinian corpuscle
B. Ruffini cylinders
C. Merkel receptors
D. Chancellor cells

28. The area on S1 associated with the thumb is as large as the area for the forearm. This is an ex of
A. sensory substitution
B. Braille projection
C. cortical magnification
D. the analgesic inversion

29. Which of the following is an "exploratory procedure" identified by Lederman and Klatzky?
A. enclosure
B. pressure
C. contour following
D. all of the above

30. In most of our daily experience, we are using
A. passive touch
B. active touch
C. two-point touch
D. two-hand touch

31. Which of the following body parts has the lowest two point threshold?
A. fingertips
B. palms
C. forehead
D. upper arm

32. Endorphins are
A. morphine-like substances found in the body
B. receptors that are stimulated by extreme temperature on the skin
C. the active agent in placebos
D. have no analgesic effects

33. There are _____ different types of olfactory receptors in humans.
A. 4
B. 20
C. appx. 350
D. appx. 10,000

34. The human sensitivity for the odorant found in natural gas is ______ the odorant for the main substance in nail polish remover.
A. greater than
B. less than
C. the same as
D. not consistently different

35. Macrosmatic species will use olfaction for
A. marking territory
B. sexual reproduction
C. a guide for food sources
D. all of these

36. The senses of __________ are referred to as the gatekeepers.
A. olfaction and gustation
B. kinethesis and proprioception
C. vision and olfaction
D. vision and proprioception

37. _____ is the inability to smell due to injury or infection.
A. Aphasia
B. Anosmia
C. Alliesthesia
D. Prosopagnosia

38. The ________ papillae are mushroom-shaped and found on the tip and sides of the tongue.
A. filiform
B. fungiform
C. foliate
D. circumvillate

39. "Across-fiber patterns" is another name for
A. distributed coding
B. specificity coding
C. olfactory decoding
D. common coding

40. The tiny bumps on the tongue that contain the taste buds are the
A. insulae
B. lattices
C. papillae
D. tadomae

41. Flavor is the impression a person gets from
A. taste only
B. the combination of olfaction and kinesthesis
C. the combination of olfaction and taste
D. the combination of olfaction, taste, and vision

42. Which of the following tastes do newborns NOT react to?
A. bitter
B. sweet
C. sour
D. salty

43. Contrast sensitivity functions are a plot of contrast sensitivity as a function of
A. spatial frequency
B. amplitude
C. pitch
D. wavelength

44. Fox et al. (1980) found that the ability to use binocular disparity develops between
A. 1 to 2 months
B. 2 to 3 months
C. 3 1/2 to 6 months
D. 10 to 11 months

45. Infants tend to look more at objects that are
A. uniformly gray
B. uniformly black
C. uniformly white
D. have contours

46. Which of the following compounds had the same flavor whether or not the person's nose was clamped to prevent olfaction?
A. sodium oleate
B. ferrous sodium
C. MSG
D. all of these are all affected by clamping the nostrils

47. The orbital frontal cortex receives input from the
A. visual pathways
B. primary somatosensory cortex
C. primary cortical areas for taste and olfaction
D. all of these

48. When presented with an odor like banana or motor oil, participants can identify the odor approximately ____ % of the time.
A. 10
B. 50
C. 87
D. 98

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