The movement of glucose into a cell against a concentration gradient is most likely to be accomplished by which of the following?
A) passive diffusion of the glucose through the lipid bilayer
B) facilitated diffusion of the glucose using a carrier protein
C) movement of glucose into the cell through a glucose channel
D) co-transport of the glucose with a proton or sodium ion that was pumped across the membrane using the energy of ATP hydrolysis
E) all of the above are equally likely