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The mitochondrial ATP synthase is comprised of multiple proteins, and some of these proteins are encoded by the genes in nucleus. One of these proteins is termed as S. The mutation in S gene deletes 21 base pairs which are instantly 3' to the start codon. The mutant S gene is transcribed and translated however the S protein remains in the cytoplasm. This mutant yeast cell can grow only anearobically, while wild type yeast can grow anaerobically or aerobically. Yeast grows as a haploid cell. In the wild type cells in the presence of O2, the pH of mitochondrial matrix is 8; however in cells with this mutant S gene, the pH is 7.

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