problem: The initial conditions for an air-standard Otto cycle operating with a compression ratio of 8:1 are 95 kPa and 17^{o} C. At the beginning of the compression stroke, the cylinder volume is 2.20 L (1 L=0.001 m^{3})and 3.60 kJ of heat is added during the constant volume heating process. find out the pressure and temperature at end of each process of the cycle, and determine the thermal efficiency and mean effective pressure of the cycle.
problem: Determine the thermal efficiency and the change in the steam quality leaving the turbine of an ideal Rankine cycle with superheating for which the turbine inlet conditions are 3000 kPa and 500 ^{o} C and the condenser pressure is 10 kPa.
problem: A reversed Brayton cycle is proposed to operate between the ambient temperature of 27 ^{o} C and the temperature of -8 ^{o} C of the cold region.
The compression and expansion ratios are 3:1. Determine COP.