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The following list are several types of mutations that could occur in a proto-oncogene or a tumor-suppressor gene. Some of these mutations may increase the rate of progression through the cell cycle (Thus promoting cancer), whereas others would either decrease the rate or have no effect.

For each of the below scenarios, prepare "increase," "decrease," or "no effect" to describe how the mutation in the proto-oncogene or tumor-suppressor gene would be expected to affect the rate of cell division and briefly describe why you choose that answer.

a. Deletion of the coding region for a proto-oncogene
b. Deletion of an enhancer located upstream of a tumor-suppressor gene
c. Translocation of the a proto-oncogene coding region near a strong enhancer
d. A retrovirus inserts into an exon of a tumor suppressor gene
e. A proto-oncogene is translocated to a heterochromatic region of the genome

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