Ask Question, Ask an Expert

+1-415-315-9853

info@mywordsolution.com

Ask Biology Expert

All living organisms must utilize energy to maintain themselves and to carry out life activities. The rate of energy utilization is known as the metabolic rate. Eukaryotic organisms used chemical energy to drive energy requiring life processes. We will measure metabolic rate in both an anaerobic and aerobic organism by measuring the amount of C02 gas produced by these organisms. We will use the Vernier CO2 gas sensor inserted into an environmental chamber in which the organism is fermenting or respiring.

The oxidation of glucose to form carbon dioxide and water liberate energy through the process of photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, green plants convert sugars into chemical energy with the help of the sun. The sugars provide stable form in which energy can be stored and transported. However, these energy is converted into another chemical form known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When ATP is split, energy is release for cellular work and the resulting molecule is known as adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP is reconverted to ATP with energy derived from sugars or other nutrients.

The flow of energy from solar radiation captured by plants (via photosynthesis) to its use by both plants and animals. This energy drives many fundamental life processes such as movement, growth, and reproduction. The release of energy from food molecules occurs by two biochemical pathways. The first is called fermentation. Fermentation usually occurs in the absence of oxygen and referred to being anaerobic. The other biochemical mechanism of energy release is called cellular respiration.

Respiration ( Plants and animals)

O2 + sugar ---------------------------> CO2 + H2O + ATP ( chemical potential energy)

Photosynthesis ( plants and plant like protists)

CO2 + H2O + light energy -------------------------> O2 + sugar

Fermentation

C6H12O6 + 2Pi + 2 ADP ------> 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2 + 2ATP + heat
Glucose Ethanol

The equation shows that for every molecule of glucose consumed: two moles each of ethanol, carbon dioxide, and ATP are produced as well as heat. You will begin by measuring the rate of CO2 productoin by yeast undergoing alcoholic fermentation. This rate will be related to the rate of ATP production which is a reflection of metabolic rate of yeasts.

The experiment will address the following problems:
Fermentation

problem 1: How will increasing the number of yeast cells influence the metabolic rate of the yeast suspensions?

problem 2: How will substituting galactose for glucose influence the metabolic rate of the yeast suspensions ?

Preparation of Yeast Samples:

1. Set up the three fermentation samples in test tubes according to the values specified in the following table:

Tube Label Suspending solution: Weight Yeast (grams)
Volume, % age, and type
1 glu- 0.3 6 ml - 20%- glucose 0.3
2 glu - 0.6 6ml - 20% -glucose 0.6
3 gal - 0.6 6ml - 20%-galactose 0.6

Measure gas production by your samples. Measurement can proceed when the sugar/yeast mixture begins to bubble and the parafilm bulges upward.

1. Turn on Lab Quest recorder by pressing the silver button on the upper left hand side of the unit.
2. Pour the entire yeast mixture from the test tube into petri dish and place the dish inside the large environmental chamber. Attach the cover which should have one opening. Insert CO2 sensor intot he second opening.

problem 3

describe why measurements of an organism's rate of gas consumption or production can be used to estimate that organism's rate of ATP production.

problem 4

What is the comparison of the two quantities of yeast exposed to the same concentration of glucose (tube 1 and tube 2)?

problem 5

describe the results for the comparison of the trials run with 0.6 grams yeast and either 20% glucose and 20% galactose.

Cellular Respiration by Corn Seedlings

Cellular respiration is the main process of ATP productoin used by plants, animals, and many microorganisms. The use of oxygen in the conversion of sugars to CO2 and water releases much more energy stored in sugar than fermentation does. It is about 16 times as much ATP is generated from fermentation of the same sugar. The overall reaction is shown below
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 32 ADP + 36Pi -------> 6CO2 + 6 H20 + 32 ATP + heat
The measurement of the rate of CO2 production by aerobic organism provides a useful measure of its rate of energy production. We will use a Vernier CO2 gas sensor inserted into a closed system containing corn seedlings undergoing cellular respiration.
The data will be used to address the problem

problem 6:
In terms of the mass specific rates you find outd (g ATP/ gram of tissue x hour), did the yeast suspensions or corn seedlings have a higher metabolic rate?

Preparatoin of corn seedlings:
1. Obtain and weigh a 250 ml Nalgen bottle and record its weight. Tilt the bottle on its side and add about 25 corn seedlings with radicles, ranging from 1.0 to 3.0 cm in length.
2. Once the seeds are in the bottle, weigh the bottle with seeds. The weight of seeds can then be find outd and recorded on worksheet.
Measurement of CO2 production

1. Insert CO2 sensor into the neck of Nalgene bottle.
2. Measure the CO2.

Biology, Academics

  • Category:- Biology
  • Reference No.:- M924398

Have any Question? 


Related Questions in Biology

What is the phenotypic ratio that can be used as a

What is the phenotypic ratio that can be used as a hypothesis for a heterozygous dihybrid cross (cross of heterozygotes for two traits) if the traits follow the properties of Mendelian inheritance?

Wellnessevaluate your own neighborhood and surrounding city

Wellness Evaluate your own neighborhood and surrounding city with regard to environmental factors related to wellness and connect your findings to the eight dimensions of wellesnn. Discuss as many environmental factors a ...

You read in the newspaper about a recently approved

You read in the newspaper about a recently approved prescription drug that has suddenly been withdrawn from the market because of severe adverse effects and several deaths. Discuss why this can still occur despite years ...

What is the difference between mortality and reproductive

What is the difference between mortality and reproductive rates? Do you think that they equally make an impact on population growth? If yes or no, why?

What are the two groups of defense mechanism of the body

What are the two groups of defense mechanism of the body against foreign or harmful agents? What is the difference between them? How can the immune memory lead to the efficacy of vaccines and also produce allergies?

What is the difference between cis-acting elements and

What is the difference between cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors in the regulation of DNA?

The a and b loci are 10 cm apart a plant with a genotype

The A and B loci are 10 cM apart. A plant with a genotype aaBB is crossed to plant with a genotype of AAbb. If an F1 plant is self pollinated, what proportion of the progeny will be homozygous dominant or homozygous rece ...

Challenge question how might having gene regulatory

Challenge question: How might having gene regulatory proteins act as hetero-and homo-dimers allow "combinatorial control" which increases the number of different genes regulated by these proteins? (Hint: remember that th ...

In a plant the allele that results in violet flowers v is

In a plant, the allele that results in violet flowers (V) is dominant to one that results in white flowers (v); at another locus, the allele that makes prickly seed capsules (P) is dominant to one that results in smooth ...

What do we refer as an increase in thickness of ozone layer

What do we refer as an increase in thickness of ozone layer in stratosphere?

  • 4,153,160 Questions Asked
  • 13,132 Experts
  • 2,558,936 Questions Answered

Ask Experts for help!!

Looking for Assignment Help?

Start excelling in your Courses, Get help with Assignment

Write us your full requirement for evaluation and you will receive response within 20 minutes turnaround time.

Ask Now Help with Problems, Get a Best Answer

WalMart Identification of theory and critical discussion

Drawing on the prescribed text and/or relevant academic literature, produce a paper which discusses the nature of group

Section onea in an atwood machine suppose two objects of

SECTION ONE (a) In an Atwood Machine, suppose two objects of unequal mass are hung vertically over a frictionless

Part 1you work in hr for a company that operates a factory

Part 1: You work in HR for a company that operates a factory manufacturing fiberglass. There are several hundred empl

Details on advanced accounting paperthis paper is intended

DETAILS ON ADVANCED ACCOUNTING PAPER This paper is intended for students to apply the theoretical knowledge around ac

Create a provider database and related reports and queries

Create a provider database and related reports and queries to capture contact information for potential PC component pro