Ask Question, Ask an Expert

+1-415-315-9853

info@mywordsolution.com

Ask Biology Expert

Instructions: On the below are three student generated arguments for the pro-side of the hypothesis that ancient AM humans interbred with Neanderthals in Europe and Asia. Your assignment is to take a side: pro or con. There really is no middle ground either we have evidence of breeding or we do not. It can’t be that you think ancestral humans maybe bred with Neanderthals but there is not enough evidence for it. YOU MUST TAKE A SIDE!

CON-SIDE: Refute the arguments below with evidence. The paper you turn in will be each of the following paragraphs followed by a paragraph describeing the evidence that refutes this argument.

OR

PRO-SIDE: Each of your three paragraphs (the evidence you have for the con-side) followed by a paragraph that refutes the evidence you presented.

6 paragraphs no more! It do not want an introduction or conclusion section. It just want you to present the evidence that you believe discredits the evidence presented in the earlier paper (below or was yours). You may quote the three paragraphs directly. The original writing is in each paragraph that follows the original paragraph. If you do not understand please ask for clarification. We do not have time to reprepare these.

PRO-Side arguments:

Similarities in morphology of the mandible between Neanderthals and AMH suggest that the features are a result of interbreeding. In 1957, the mandible of RiparoMezzena, a Middle Paleolithic rockshelter in the MontiLessini (NE Italy, Verona), was discovered (Condemi 2013). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis and direct dating confirm that the mandible belongs to a late Neanderthal, the only genetically typed Neanderthal of the Italian peninsula (Condemi 2013). Condemi et al. utilized comparative morphology and shape analysis to demonstrate the morphology of the lower jaw appears to be in between the receding lower jaw (no chin) of classic Neanderthals and the projecting lower jaw (strongly developed chin) of AMHs. The incipient mental trigone of the late Neanderthal displays a much more modern morphology (Condemi 2013). In addition, the results of linear Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) depicts the position of the Mezzena mandible to be within the modern human shape space, while possessing strong shape similarities with some Neanderthal specimens (Condemi 2013). Change in morphology of the mandibular chin among the fossils of Mezzena and other late Neanderthals could have been the result of a small degree of interbreeding with AMHs.

Comparison of DNA sequences between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) show that Neanderthals share more genetic variants with non-Africans than with Africans due to interbreeding. Recent analyses of 100 mg of bone powder removed from the bone of the Mezzena mandible for DNA extraction and PCR analysis revealed that Neanderthal genomes have closer genetic af?nities with modern non-Africans than with West Africans (Condemi 2013). In addition, Green et al. identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles by comparing one randomly chosen sequence from an AMH against that of a Neanderthal, demonstrating Neanderthals are equally close to present day Europeans and East Asians. However, Neanderthals are significantly closer to non-Africans than to Africans (Green 2010).

The success rates of interbreeding are observed to be low and imply that there are effective barriers to gene flow between Neanderthals and AMH. Using spatially explicit simulations, Currat and Excoffier computed the expected amount of admixture among Neanderthals and AMH to be less than 2%. The observed low rates can be describeed by assortative mating and/or low fitness of hybrids, and are compatible with the previously observed lack of mtDNA introgression (Currat 2011). If both species interacted for 10,000 years during the range expansion of modern humans, to produce introgression levels of 1–3%, Neanderthals and AMH only have to mingle, on average, once every 23–50years, which shows that they were extremely rare events (Currat 2011).

References:
Condemi et al. “Possible Interbreeding in Late Italian Neanderthals?New Data from the Mezzena Jaw (MontiLessini, Verona, Italy).”PLoS ONE (2013) 8:e59781.

Currat M, Excoffier L. “Strong reproductive isolation between humans and Neanderthals inferred from observed patterns of introgression.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.(2011) 108:15129–15134.

Green et al. "A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome." Science. (2010) 328:710-722

Biology, Academics

  • Category:- Biology
  • Reference No.:- M91085

Have any Question? 


Related Questions in Biology

Answer in a word or sentence1 who gave the theory of

Answer in a word or sentence: 1. Who gave the theory of natural selection and the concept of 'organic evolution'? 2. What idea is proposed by J.B.S Haldane about the origin of life on earth? 3. Give an example where envi ...

Assignment anatomy amp physiologydirections be sure to

ASSIGNMENT: Anatomy & Physiology Directions: Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to u ...

Biologysickle cell disease1describe the disease and its

Biology Sickle Cell Disease 1. Describe the disease and its genetic basis. 2. Explain how this disease is inherited and why it is not always inherited. 3. Why is genetic testing controversial?

Assignmentappendix c organizational requirements for

Assignment Appendix C: Organizational Requirements for Phototropism Virtual Laboratory Paper Introduction: Provide readers with the experiment's background information, and present the hypothesis in approximately 175 wor ...

You currently work as a marketing coordinator for new city

You currently work as a marketing coordinator for New City Home Care, a private home health company that offers nursing care and therapy services to the elderly residents of a medium-sized Midwestern city with a populati ...

Biological system is amazing a fellow student claims it can

"Biological system is amazing", a fellow student claims, "it can drive any thermodynamically unfavorable reaction forward, and does not need to follow the thermodynamic laws." How would you respond to this statement? Giv ...

Human biologydiscussion 1define obesity and identify why it

Human Biology Discussion 1 Define obesity and identify why it is considered to be a health risk. Discussion 2 The male and female reproductive systems are controlled by hormones and feedback systems. Identify and discuss ...

The scientific language of god assignmentthree parts if

The Scientific Language of God Assignment Three parts if this assignment to submit on Blackboard 1. Write a 3-4 sentence executive summary for each of the following three article links- (That means a paragraph on each of ...

You have been asked to investigate a new procedure that

You have been asked to investigate a new procedure that physicians would like nurses to adopt in the hospital. Discuss the process you would apply to determine whether the procedure falls within the RN scope of practice ...

Please answer the following questions you may answer on

Please answer the following questions, you may answer on this sheet or your own paper. 1. How does a theory differ from a hypothesis? 2. Mendel's laws are illustrated using Punnett squares. In the example below, we are l ...

  • 4,153,160 Questions Asked
  • 13,132 Experts
  • 2,558,936 Questions Answered

Ask Experts for help!!

Looking for Assignment Help?

Start excelling in your Courses, Get help with Assignment

Write us your full requirement for evaluation and you will receive response within 20 minutes turnaround time.

Ask Now Help with Problems, Get a Best Answer

A cola-dispensing machine is set to dispense 9 ounces of

A cola-dispensing machine is set to dispense 9 ounces of cola per cup, with a standard deviation of 1.0 ounce. The manuf

What is marketingbullwhat is marketing think back to your

What is Marketing? • "What is marketing"? Think back to your impressions before you started this class versus how you

Question -your client david smith runs a small it

QUESTION - Your client, David Smith runs a small IT consulting business specialising in computer software and techno

Inspection of a random sample of 22 aircraft showed that 15

Inspection of a random sample of 22 aircraft showed that 15 needed repairs to fix a wiring problem that might compromise

Effective hrmquestionhow can an effective hrm system help

Effective HRM Question How can an effective HRM system help facilitate the achievement of an organization's strate