Ask Question, Ask an Expert

+1-415-315-9853

info@mywordsolution.com

Ask Biology Expert

Instructions: On the below are three student generated arguments for the pro-side of the hypothesis that ancient AM humans interbred with Neanderthals in Europe and Asia. Your assignment is to take a side: pro or con. There really is no middle ground either we have evidence of breeding or we do not. It can’t be that you think ancestral humans maybe bred with Neanderthals but there is not enough evidence for it. YOU MUST TAKE A SIDE!

CON-SIDE: Refute the arguments below with evidence. The paper you turn in will be each of the following paragraphs followed by a paragraph describeing the evidence that refutes this argument.

OR

PRO-SIDE: Each of your three paragraphs (the evidence you have for the con-side) followed by a paragraph that refutes the evidence you presented.

6 paragraphs no more! It do not want an introduction or conclusion section. It just want you to present the evidence that you believe discredits the evidence presented in the earlier paper (below or was yours). You may quote the three paragraphs directly. The original writing is in each paragraph that follows the original paragraph. If you do not understand please ask for clarification. We do not have time to reprepare these.

PRO-Side arguments:

Similarities in morphology of the mandible between Neanderthals and AMH suggest that the features are a result of interbreeding. In 1957, the mandible of RiparoMezzena, a Middle Paleolithic rockshelter in the MontiLessini (NE Italy, Verona), was discovered (Condemi 2013). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis and direct dating confirm that the mandible belongs to a late Neanderthal, the only genetically typed Neanderthal of the Italian peninsula (Condemi 2013). Condemi et al. utilized comparative morphology and shape analysis to demonstrate the morphology of the lower jaw appears to be in between the receding lower jaw (no chin) of classic Neanderthals and the projecting lower jaw (strongly developed chin) of AMHs. The incipient mental trigone of the late Neanderthal displays a much more modern morphology (Condemi 2013). In addition, the results of linear Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) depicts the position of the Mezzena mandible to be within the modern human shape space, while possessing strong shape similarities with some Neanderthal specimens (Condemi 2013). Change in morphology of the mandibular chin among the fossils of Mezzena and other late Neanderthals could have been the result of a small degree of interbreeding with AMHs.

Comparison of DNA sequences between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) show that Neanderthals share more genetic variants with non-Africans than with Africans due to interbreeding. Recent analyses of 100 mg of bone powder removed from the bone of the Mezzena mandible for DNA extraction and PCR analysis revealed that Neanderthal genomes have closer genetic af?nities with modern non-Africans than with West Africans (Condemi 2013). In addition, Green et al. identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles by comparing one randomly chosen sequence from an AMH against that of a Neanderthal, demonstrating Neanderthals are equally close to present day Europeans and East Asians. However, Neanderthals are significantly closer to non-Africans than to Africans (Green 2010).

The success rates of interbreeding are observed to be low and imply that there are effective barriers to gene flow between Neanderthals and AMH. Using spatially explicit simulations, Currat and Excoffier computed the expected amount of admixture among Neanderthals and AMH to be less than 2%. The observed low rates can be describeed by assortative mating and/or low fitness of hybrids, and are compatible with the previously observed lack of mtDNA introgression (Currat 2011). If both species interacted for 10,000 years during the range expansion of modern humans, to produce introgression levels of 1–3%, Neanderthals and AMH only have to mingle, on average, once every 23–50years, which shows that they were extremely rare events (Currat 2011).

References:
Condemi et al. “Possible Interbreeding in Late Italian Neanderthals?New Data from the Mezzena Jaw (MontiLessini, Verona, Italy).”PLoS ONE (2013) 8:e59781.

Currat M, Excoffier L. “Strong reproductive isolation between humans and Neanderthals inferred from observed patterns of introgression.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.(2011) 108:15129–15134.

Green et al. "A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome." Science. (2010) 328:710-722

Biology, Academics

  • Category:- Biology
  • Reference No.:- M91085

Have any Question? 


Related Questions in Biology

What are the primary differences between a steroidlipid

What are the primary differences between a steroid/lipid soluble hormone and a protein hormone?

Three questions with cited references1 describe how social

Three questions with cited references... 1. Describe how social and environmental factors impact human behavior. 2. Describe two-three causes of death related to human behavior. Have the governments' interventions been e ...

1 mediterranean climates like those in central california

1. Mediterranean Climates, like those in Central California, experience extremely hot and dry summers and relatively cool and moist winters. Relate the soil-water balance to the growth strategies of plants in this region ...

Which common characteristics is not shared by birds and

Which common characteristics is not shared by birds. and mammals? Breathing using lings Viviparity warm blooded nature.

What water depth do reef corals prefer how does water depth

What water depth do reef corals prefer? How does water depth control coral growth? Explain the development of atolls.

List and describe different sediments that can be seen in

List and describe different sediments that can be seen in urine and differentiate between normal and abnormal sediments.

1 how does gel electrophoresis sort dna fragments2 if

1. How does gel electrophoresis sort DNA fragments? 2. If each individual has such a small amount of DNA, how do the bands on the gel contain enough DNA to be visible? 3. Many genes only have a few possible alleles. For ...

With which archaic human species did some of the ancestors

With which archaic human species did some of the ancestors of modern Europeans interbreed during the past 100,000 years?

You believe that the cytosolic protein p007 is involved in

You believe that the cytosolic protein p007 is involved in mediating growth hormone-stimulated proliferation in cells. You wish to establish a cell model using your cultured fibroblasts. Provide clear explanations to the ...

Immune and musculoskeletal diseasesresearch an autoimmune

Immune and Musculoskeletal Diseases Research an autoimmune disease that affects the musculoskeletal system.  Write a 2-page paper. Address the following in the paper: The pertinent information on both the immune and musc ...

  • 4,153,160 Questions Asked
  • 13,132 Experts
  • 2,558,936 Questions Answered

Ask Experts for help!!

Looking for Assignment Help?

Start excelling in your Courses, Get help with Assignment

Write us your full requirement for evaluation and you will receive response within 20 minutes turnaround time.

Ask Now Help with Problems, Get a Best Answer

Section onea in an atwood machine suppose two objects of

SECTION ONE (a) In an Atwood Machine, suppose two objects of unequal mass are hung vertically over a frictionless

Part 1you work in hr for a company that operates a factory

Part 1: You work in HR for a company that operates a factory manufacturing fiberglass. There are several hundred empl

Details on advanced accounting paperthis paper is intended

DETAILS ON ADVANCED ACCOUNTING PAPER This paper is intended for students to apply the theoretical knowledge around ac

Create a provider database and related reports and queries

Create a provider database and related reports and queries to capture contact information for potential PC component pro

Describe what you learned about the impact of economic

Describe what you learned about the impact of economic, social, and demographic trends affecting the US labor environmen