Mutation as well as central dogma process.
Finish all three parts and answer all problems. Recollect to turn in Punnett Square for Part 2.
Part 1- Genetics - From Genes to Proteins and Mutations
Overview- Genetic information in DNA is recorded to RNA as well as then translated into the amino acid sequence of a Protein.
Step 1 - Transcription- During the process of transcription the information in the DNA codons of a gene is transcribed into RNA.
Supposing that gene X has the DNA base sequence 3'-TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5'.
Q- describe what would be the base sequence of RNA after transcription occurs? Turn this in.
(In this particular instance, presume that the RNA product does not require processing to become mRNA. In other words the transcribed RNA develops the mRNA sequence.)
Step 2 - Translation- During protein synthesis at the ribosome and the base sequence of the mRNA codons is interpreted to the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Q- Using the mRNA that you transcribed above utlize the genetic code table to determine the resulting amino acid sequence? Turn this in.
In addition to turn in the answer to these problems-
describe what is the significance of the first and last codons? describe what meaning do these codons have for protein synthesis?
C) Mutations- A mutation is distinct as a change in the base sequence of DNA. This may take place as a "mistake" in DNA replication, for instance.
Supposing that during DNA replication and two mutant DNA sequences are produced as shown below.
For the 2 mutated DNA sequences and you will investigate how these changes might affect the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
problem- For each of the two you will essential to first transcribe the mRNA and then use the genetic code table to determine the amino acid sequence.
Turn these in as well as state whether the protein sequence changes for each.
problem- Then describe why a change in amino acid sequence might affect protein function. Turn in your answer.
Here is the novel sequence followed by two mutated sequences 1 and 2
Original sequence 3\\\'- TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5'
Mutated sequence 1) 3'-TACGCTTTAGTAGCCATT-5\\\'
Mutated sequence 2) 3'-TAACCTTTACTAGGCACT-5'.
Part 2- Legacy of Traits or Genetic Disorders
Bob as well as Sally recently married. Upon determining to plan a family, both Sally as well as Bob find out that they are both heterozygous for cystic fibrosis nevertheless neither of them has symptoms of the disorder.
Set up as well as complete a Punnett Square for cystic fibrosis for this couple turn in the Punnett square.
When doing the Punnett Square C = normal allele and c = allele for cystic fibrosis.
Note: You can use the Table function in MS Word to create and fill in a Punnett Square.
Based on the Punnett square, compute chances (percentages) for having a healthy child (not a carrier) and a child that is a carrier for the cystic fibrosis trait and a child with cystic fibrosis? Turn in these percentages.
Part 3- Cell division, sexual reproduction as well as genetic variability
Eukaryotic cells can divide by mitosis or meiosis. In humans, mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair; meiosis produces sex cells (gametes) called sperm and eggs.
Although mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variability, both meiosis and sexual reproduction also can contribute to new genetic combinations in offspring.
problem: How do both meiosis and sexual reproduction (fertilization) produce offspring that differ heritably from the parents? Be sure to talk about ladders in meiosis that increase variability as well as the process of fertilization. Please succumb your assignment.