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2. Which of the following statements about osmosis is NOT correct?
a. It occurs across a membrane.
b. It is a special form of diffusion.
c. Only water flows across a membrane.
d. In hypertonic surroundings, water will flow into cells.
e. Osmosis is based on a concentration difference.

3. Which of the following is NOT true about channel proteins?
a. Substances move along a concentration gradient.
b. They are integral membrane proteins.
c. Movement of substances is based on diffusion.
d. Energy is required to move substances through the channel protein.
e. Ions can move through channel proteins.

4. Which term would you associate most with facilitated diffusion?
a. proton pumps
b. Ca2+ pumps
c. Na+/K+ pumps
d. carrier proteins
e. electrochemical gradient

5. Which process CANNOT move particles, water, or solutes into a cell?
a. osmosis
b. phagocytosis
c. pinocytosis
d. exocytosis
e. receptor-mediated endocytosis

6. Which term would you associate with exchange diffusion?
a. osmosis
b. active transport
c. facilitated diffusion
d. passive transport
e. peripheral membrane protein

7. Which of the following is NOT true for fermentation?
a. It produces less energy than aerobic respiration.
b. It uses excess NAD+ to regenerate NADH.
c. It includes glycolysis.
d. It does not include an electron transport chain.
e. Oxygen is not the terminal electron acceptor.

8. The citric acid cycle take place
a. in the chloroplasts.
b. in the cytosol.
c. in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
d. between the two mitochondrial membranes.
e. in the mitochondrial matrix.

9. Which of the following terms does NOT apply to chemiosmosis?
a. glycolysis
b. proton-motive force
c. oxidative phosphorylation
d. ATP synthase
e. inner mitochondrial membrane

10. The high concentration of protons in the intermembrane space of mitochondria originates from
a. glycolysis.
b. pyruvate oxidation.
c. reactions in the electron transport chain.
d. synthesis of ATP.
e. all of the above.

11. Which of the following substances is/are involved in the regulation of aerobic respiration?
a. ATP
b. citrate
d. AMP
e. all of the above

12. In the absence of the light reactions of photosynthesis, which components would be required to make the Calvin cycle proceed?
a. water and light
b. chlorophyll a
c. ATP and NADPH
d. only NADPH
e. carotenoids and chlorophyll

13. Which of the following is NOT correct for rubisco?
a. It is the most abundant enzyme.
b. It catalyzes two different reactions.
c. It is involved in photorespiration.
d. It is not used by CAM plants.
e. It is not efficient in fixing CO2.

14. Which of the following is NOT true for CAM plants?
a. They lack bundle sheath cells.
b. They do not use the Calvin cycle.
c. They are common in hot, dry environments.
d. PEP carboxylase is a key enzyme.
e. CAM plants prevent photorespiration.

15. Which of the following components is not crucial for cyclic electron transport in photosynthesis?
a. photosystem I
b. photosystem II
c. light
d. ferredoxin
e. plastocyanin

16. To produce two molecules of O2, how many photons must be absorbed through photosynthesis?
a. 4
b. 8
c. 16
d. 32
e. none of the above

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