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In one day the average person secretes about 2.5 litres of gastric juice into the stomach. The pH of the cells in the stomach lining that perform the secretion is about 7 (the same as for all cells) and the pH of the stomach is about 1. Thus, H+ ions must be moved against an H+ gradient. The free energy change for moving molecules against a gradient is:

^G = R T lne(C2/C1) (where ^ = delta)

where C2 is the greater concentration. If the process of pumping H+ ions is 20% efficient, how many moles of ATP are used each day to secrete gastric juice? How many kilograms could be lifted one meter (20% efficiency) wiht this energy?

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