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find out GPP, Increase in biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, etc., by describeing how you arrived at the final answer and showing all of the equations or formulas involved in each calculation. Kindly use the correct scientific units throughout the calculation, as well as in the final answer. Please use scientific notation and an appropriate number of significant figures in the final answers. Thank you.

In an ecological investigation of an area of European grassland, the energy values of organisms in the ecosystem were found. The ecologist summarized the results of the work thus:

The amount of solar energy reaching the grassland was 1.91 x 10^6 kJ m^-2 y^-1. The grasses of the area lost 36 x 10^2 kJ m^-2 y^-1 in respiration and showed a net primary productivity (NPP) of 20.4 x 10^3kJ m^-2 y-1.

1. What is the gross primary productivity (GPP) for this area? Please show all of your workings.

2. find out the photosynthetic efficiency, i.e., the percentage of solar energy reaching the vegetation that is converted to GPP.

3. Most of the NPP of the producers is lost by death or other pathways, but three particular groups of animals feeding on the grass were also studied:

a. field mice , which ingested 107 kJ m^-2y^-1 and lost 105 kJ m^-2y^-1 in respiration and faeces;

b. grasshoppers, which ingested 444 kJ m^-2y^-1 and lost 374.3 kJ m^-2y^-1 in respiration and faeces;

c. small birds, which ate grass seeds with an energy value of 60 kJ m^-2y^-1 and lost 59.2 kJ m^-2y^-1 in respiration and faeces;

find out the increase in biomass of each of the three groups: field mice, grasshoppers and small birds.

d. The energy value of the grasshopper population that is consumed by spiders is 0.8 kJ m^-2y^-1. In this habitat, grasshoppers do not survive beyond the end of the year. find out the percentage of the total energy value by grasshoppers lost by death and other pathways.

e. Some important groups of organisms found in each ecosystem have been omitted from this account . STATE what they are and their functions.

f. Please state the trophic level of each group of organism in this food web.

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