a) Give an account on various types of granulocytic cells? Illustrate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of macropages.
b) Describe the cytokines produced by Th1 and Th2 cells and describe their biological activities.
a) Describe the structural and functional properties of various types of immunoglobulin.
b) Give a short account on the four kinds of hypersensitive reactions.
a) describe the consequences of the adhesion on both the bacterial and host cells.
b) State the mode of action of some significant gram-negative bacteria toxins.
a) Describe the role of cyclic nucleotide second messengers in the signal transduction pathways.
b) describe the role of pathogenic bacteria in inducing the apoptotic program in their respective hosts.
problem 5: prepare brief description on the following terms:
• Cytokine activation.
• Antigen-presenting cells.
• Rheumatoid factors.
• Routes of bacterial invasion.
• Quorum sensing.
• Programmed cell death.