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problem1)(a) What do you understand by the term Respiratory Quotient(RQ)

(b) What does it indicate if RQ in humans is:

(i) near 0.7

(ii) near 0.1

(iii) between 0.7-1.0

(c) When does RQ exceed 1? Describe why and how this happens.

problem2) Describe with the help of well labelled figures the pattern of blood circulation in fish and mammals.

problem3) (a) Define the following terms and give one animal ex for each type.

(i) ammonotelic

(ii) ureotelic

(iii) uricotelic

(iv) guanotelic

(b) Describe with the help of a suitable diagram the process of oxidative transdeamination that catabolises the amino acids which enter the body of animal through diet.

problem4) (a) Differentiate:

(i) obligatory and

(ii) regulated osmotic exchanges that occur between an animal and its environment

(b) Discuss the methods adopted by various terrestrial organisms to minimise water loss during the process of air breathing

problem5) (a) Draw a well labelled diagram of a cross-section of cilium showing its internal structure.

(b) Describe with the help of well labelled figures the control of contraction of vertebrate sheletal muscle by calcium and regulatory proteins.

problem6) (a) Differentiate mammalian spermatogonia and primary spermatocyte

(b) describe the reproductive estrous cycle in rats

problem7) a) Draw a suitable diagram showing location of endocrine glands in a human body

b) describe with help of a well labelled diagram the role of insect endocrine system in moulting and development.

problem8) (a) Match the glial cells given in column I with their respective function listed in column II

Column I (glial cells)                        Column II (function)

(i)   Microglia           (a) surrounds axons of all peripheral nerve fibres, form the myelin sheath

(ii) Oligodendrocyte (b) cover capillaries of brain to form the blood brain barrier and help regulate passage                                                                                  of molecules from blood to brain

(iii) Astrocyte        (c)  phagocytic amoeboid cells in central nervous system that remove foreign and degenerate                                                                     material from the brain                                         
(iv) Schwann cell    (d) form myelin sheath around central axons producing the white matter of central nervous system

(b) describe using well labelled diagrams the events involved in the genesis of a nerve impulse.

problem9) prepare brief notes on:

(i) Controlled hypothermia in homeotherms

(ii) Peptide hormones

problem10)a) describe water potential? Describe the effect of solute, pressure and matric pressure on water potential.

b) describe the mechanism of control of stomata with suitable diagram.

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