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describe understanding some of the processes of the human body.

1.  describe Hypocalcemia stimulates

 1) a decrease in aldosterone production.

 2) secretion of parathyroid hormone.

 3) secretion of renin.

 4) an increase in blood urea nitrogen.

 5) vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.

2. describe the mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what?

 1) renal autoregulation

 2) the myogenic mechanism

 3) tubuloglomerular feedback

 4) sympathetic control

 5) the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

3. describe what is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?






4. describe this byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.

 1) urea

 2) creatinine

 3) uric acid

 4) azotemia

 5) ammonia

5. describe in the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as

 1) plasm1)

 2) glomerular filtrate.

 3) tubular fluid.

 4) renal filtrate.

 5) medullary filtrate.

6. describe prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of

 1) diabetes insipidus.

 2) acute glomerulonephritis.

 3) diabetes mellitus.

 4) renal calculus.

 5) pyelitis.

7. describe the transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the

 1) glomerulus.

 2) medull1)

 3) cortical radiate veins.

 4) peritubular capillaries.

 5) vasa rect1)

8. describe all of the following are composed of cuboidal epithelium with the exception of

 1) the thin segment of the nephron loop.

 2) the thick segment of the nephron loop.

 3) the collecting duct.

 4) the proximal convoluted tubule.

 5) the distal convoluted tubule.

9. describe renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the ________ to form angiotensin I.

 1) lungs

 2) kidneys

 3) liver

 4) heart

 5) spleen

10. describe in a healthy kidney very little ___ is filtered by the glomerulus.

 1) amino acids

 2) electrolytes

 3) glucose

 4) vitamins

 5) protein

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