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In the plant genus Triticum there are many different polyploid species, as well as diploid species. Crosses were made between three different species, and hybrids were obtained. The meiotic pairing was observed in each hybrid, and this is recorded in the following table. (A bivalent is two homologous chromosomes paired at meiosis, and a univalent is an unpaired chromosome at meiosis.)

Species crossed to make hybrid Pairing in hybrid

1. T. turdigum × T. monococcum 7 bivalents + 7 univalents

2. T. aestivum × T. monococcum 7 bivalents + 14 univalents

3. T. aestivum × T. turdigum 14 bivalents + 7 univalents

describe these results and, in doing so,

a) deduce the somatic chromosome number of each species used.

b) state which species are polyploid and whether they are autopolyploids or allopolyploids.

c) account for the chromosome pairing pattern in the three hybrids.

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