Ask Question, Ask an Expert

+1-415-315-9853

info@mywordsolution.com

Ask Biology Expert

Case study on Salmonella Outbreaks in the U.S.

Every year, approximately 42,000 cases of salmonellosis are reported in the United States. Because many milder cases are not diagnosed or reported, the actual number of infections may be twenty-nine or more times greater. It is estimated that approximately 400 persons die each year with acute salmonellosis. A small number of persons with Salmonella develop pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and painful urination. This is called reactive arthritis. It can last for months or years, and can lead to chronic arthritis which is difficult to treat. Antibiotic treatment does not make a difference in whether or not the person develops arthritis. (CDC, 2013)

1) Using your OWN WORDS describe the full Chain of Infection for Salmonella. Cite your references:

a) Agent(s):
b) Reservoir(s):
c) Exit/Transmission/Entry:
d) Host Susceptibility:

2) Find and include the most current CASE DEFINITION for Salmonellosis. Cite your source(s):

3) Use the attached source, The MMWR Notifiable Diseases – U.S., 2011 (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm6053.pdf), to answer these problems about the descriptive epidemiology of Salmonella morbidity in the US.  Support your answers by including some data comparisons from this source.

a) Is it seasonal?  If so, what is its seasonality?
b) Is it geographically specific? (Refer to US regions, not sates)
c) What is the term trend (2004 -2011) in Reported Cases per year?

4) There are currently two active US outbreaks of Salmonella involving live poultry. Much of the exposure is coming from backyard pets and small suburban flocks of chickens and ducks. To investigate the source of salmonella in these livestock, the CDC has been randomly testing chicks and ducklings at the sources for these livestock: farm stores and mail-order livestock suppliers. Twelve suppliers were randomly selected in each category and 100 chicks or ducklings were tested per site.  Here are the data for the number of positive tests per 100 livestock tested per supplier:

Mail-Order: 5, 7, 6, 3, 6, 4, 5, 2, 6, 8, 6, 7
Farm Stores: 8, 3, 6, 7, 3, 4, 8, 7, 3, 2, 8, 6

a) Create a Frequency Table for BOTHsources

b) Compute, compare, and interpret the following for BOTHsources.

You MUST show your full computations for credit:

  • Meanand Mode of infected livestock   
  • Confidence Intervals
  • For which source are we most confident that our tests results can be inferred to similar sources? How do you know?
  • Toward which sourceshould the CDC direct itsregulatory efforts? Why?

 

Biology, Academics

  • Category:- Biology
  • Reference No.:- M91225

Have any Question? 


Related Questions in Biology

What characteristics of sahelanthropus tchadenssis exclude

What characteristics of Sahelanthropus tchadenssis exclude it from being considered human?

What type of classes of infections may yeast and molds

What type of classes of infections may yeast and molds cause?

Describe the purpose of the human genome project and how it

Describe the purpose of the Human Genome project and how it was achieved. Form a hypothesis of future research that could benefit from the HGP.

What is normally presented on the mhc i complex of antigen

What is normally presented on the MHC I complex of Antigen presenting cells? When does it present foreign peptide on its MHC I complex? Can they present self peptides on their MHC I complex, but foreign peptides on their ...

With which archaic human species did some of the ancestors

With which archaic human species did some of the ancestors of modern Europeans interbreed during the past 100,000 years?

What is the name of the class of enzymes that catalyze the

What is the name of the class of enzymes that catalyze the binding of specific amino acids to the proper tRNA? What would happen to the proteins in a cell if there was a mutation in the gene for that enzyme such that it ...

1 in your own words find 5 solutions for the coral

1) In your own words find 5 solutions for the coral bleaching problem in Australia. 2) Also in your own words find 2 solutions for coral bleaching across the planet.

Discuss the concept of risk and diversification and

Discuss the concept of risk and diversification and highlight types of risk correlation within portfolio with more than one asset?

1 identify five different mammalian species2 describe what

1. Identify five different mammalian species. 2. Describe what tissues regenerate. 3. Discuss if you believe that each of these mammals use the same or a different mechanism to regenerate tissues?

All cells on earth use mrna to make protein rather than

All cells on Earth use mRNA to make protein rather than using DNA directly. Why is it more advantageous to make protein from mRNA rather than directly from DNA in prokaryotic cells?

  • 4,153,160 Questions Asked
  • 13,132 Experts
  • 2,558,936 Questions Answered

Ask Experts for help!!

Looking for Assignment Help?

Start excelling in your Courses, Get help with Assignment

Write us your full requirement for evaluation and you will receive response within 20 minutes turnaround time.

Ask Now Help with Problems, Get a Best Answer

Section onea in an atwood machine suppose two objects of

SECTION ONE (a) In an Atwood Machine, suppose two objects of unequal mass are hung vertically over a frictionless

Part 1you work in hr for a company that operates a factory

Part 1: You work in HR for a company that operates a factory manufacturing fiberglass. There are several hundred empl

Details on advanced accounting paperthis paper is intended

DETAILS ON ADVANCED ACCOUNTING PAPER This paper is intended for students to apply the theoretical knowledge around ac

Create a provider database and related reports and queries

Create a provider database and related reports and queries to capture contact information for potential PC component pro

Describe what you learned about the impact of economic

Describe what you learned about the impact of economic, social, and demographic trends affecting the US labor environmen