Ask Question, Ask an Expert

+1-415-315-9853

info@mywordsolution.com

Ask Biology Expert

Case study on Salmonella Outbreaks in the U.S.

Every year, approximately 42,000 cases of salmonellosis are reported in the United States. Because many milder cases are not diagnosed or reported, the actual number of infections may be twenty-nine or more times greater. It is estimated that approximately 400 persons die each year with acute salmonellosis. A small number of persons with Salmonella develop pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and painful urination. This is called reactive arthritis. It can last for months or years, and can lead to chronic arthritis which is difficult to treat. Antibiotic treatment does not make a difference in whether or not the person develops arthritis. (CDC, 2013)

1) Using your OWN WORDS describe the full Chain of Infection for Salmonella. Cite your references:

a) Agent(s):
b) Reservoir(s):
c) Exit/Transmission/Entry:
d) Host Susceptibility:

2) Find and include the most current CASE DEFINITION for Salmonellosis. Cite your source(s):

3) Use the attached source, The MMWR Notifiable Diseases – U.S., 2011 (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm6053.pdf), to answer these problems about the descriptive epidemiology of Salmonella morbidity in the US.  Support your answers by including some data comparisons from this source.

a) Is it seasonal?  If so, what is its seasonality?
b) Is it geographically specific? (Refer to US regions, not sates)
c) What is the term trend (2004 -2011) in Reported Cases per year?

4) There are currently two active US outbreaks of Salmonella involving live poultry. Much of the exposure is coming from backyard pets and small suburban flocks of chickens and ducks. To investigate the source of salmonella in these livestock, the CDC has been randomly testing chicks and ducklings at the sources for these livestock: farm stores and mail-order livestock suppliers. Twelve suppliers were randomly selected in each category and 100 chicks or ducklings were tested per site.  Here are the data for the number of positive tests per 100 livestock tested per supplier:

Mail-Order: 5, 7, 6, 3, 6, 4, 5, 2, 6, 8, 6, 7
Farm Stores: 8, 3, 6, 7, 3, 4, 8, 7, 3, 2, 8, 6

a) Create a Frequency Table for BOTHsources

b) Compute, compare, and interpret the following for BOTHsources.

You MUST show your full computations for credit:

  • Meanand Mode of infected livestock   
  • Confidence Intervals
  • For which source are we most confident that our tests results can be inferred to similar sources? How do you know?
  • Toward which sourceshould the CDC direct itsregulatory efforts? Why?

 

Biology, Academics

  • Category:- Biology
  • Reference No.:- M91225

Have any Question? 


Related Questions in Biology

Which animals have a built in thermostat to maintain

Which animals have a built in thermostat to maintain constant body temperature?

Some boxers and wrestlers dehydrate abruptly by spending

Some boxers and wrestlers dehydrate abruptly by spending time in a sauna and sweating a lot in order to lose weight and compete with a lower tier, however this is a serious health hazard, explain what happens to the toni ...

In an experimental template having perfectly placed 5

In an experimental template having perfectly placed 5 nucleosomes there is a single EcoR1 site buried near dyad axis of the 3rd nucleosome. Is it possible for a modeller to make this site accessible without disturbing an ...

Elaborate on the basic concepts involved in the regulation

Elaborate on the basic concepts involved in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes. Also, identify the hormones that play important roles in regulating fluid balance and electrolyte balance and describe their effects.

Dolly dolly and more dollyit all started with a sheep named

Dolly, Dolly, and More Dolly It all started with a sheep named Dolly. In the mid-1990s, scientists proved convincingly that after decades of trying, we could, indeed, clone mammals - and even possibly, human beings. Unsu ...

1 explain how insulin regulates glucose levels in the

1. Explain how insulin regulates glucose levels in the blood? 2. What is unique about the glands of the endocrine system?

A child is born with a genetic disorder in which there is a

A child is born with a genetic disorder in which there is a deletion of part of a chromosome, and the child is predicted to be severely mentally retard. Which diagnosis should the nurse expect to see on the infant s char ...

Discuss five different techniques used in the preparation

Discuss five different techniques used in the preparation of fermented products. please cite where you got the information please.

Hong kong university of science and technology and he

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and he current research areas include 1. Post-translational modification (PTM) networks in plant cell signaling and cell cycle.  2. Quantitative PTM proteomics, interactomi ...

Research and briefly describe a real world example about

Research and briefly describe a real world example about acid rain affects plants. Be sure to demonstrate how pH contributes to the outcome, and proposed solutions. Descriptions should be approximately 2-3 paragraphs. In ...

  • 4,153,160 Questions Asked
  • 13,132 Experts
  • 2,558,936 Questions Answered

Ask Experts for help!!

Looking for Assignment Help?

Start excelling in your Courses, Get help with Assignment

Write us your full requirement for evaluation and you will receive response within 20 minutes turnaround time.

Ask Now Help with Problems, Get a Best Answer

Section onea in an atwood machine suppose two objects of

SECTION ONE (a) In an Atwood Machine, suppose two objects of unequal mass are hung vertically over a frictionless

Part 1you work in hr for a company that operates a factory

Part 1: You work in HR for a company that operates a factory manufacturing fiberglass. There are several hundred empl

Details on advanced accounting paperthis paper is intended

DETAILS ON ADVANCED ACCOUNTING PAPER This paper is intended for students to apply the theoretical knowledge around ac

Create a provider database and related reports and queries

Create a provider database and related reports and queries to capture contact information for potential PC component pro

Describe what you learned about the impact of economic

Describe what you learned about the impact of economic, social, and demographic trends affecting the US labor environmen