A) “Protein X” is a protein that is destined for secretion at the plasma membrane of one of our cells. Discuss the cellular transport of this protein from the Ribosome/ER to it’s eventual secretion at the membrane. Be sure you discuss the cellular structures involved in this process at each step, the types of alterations/modifications that may be made to the protein, and any major proteins or complexes that may play a specific role in mediating the process of transport.
B) Discuss the structures and processes involved in the selective retention of a protein. Make sure you discuss the sequences or features of a protein that will undergo this process and how the function to specifically target a protein for retention.
C) Discuss & describe the 4 main types of extracellular signaling. Provide a detailed ex for each type and the functional effect you ex has in our system (How does this particular molecule/hormone/protein signal, what it interacts with, and what is the function it triggers?)
D) Discuss PI3K-AKT signaling and how it provides “cellular stimulation” for cells to survive, develop, and grow. Be sure to describe the known components of this signaling pathway (hint: map of signaling would be helpful here) from the initial signal at the membrane to the “cellular stimulation” within the cell that triggers cellular proliferation.