Answer the following problems:
problem1) Cite five exs of fungi that are beneficial to human beings.
problem2) Why are lichens described as the pioneers of vegetation?
problem3) Do you consider lichens as exs of mutualism or controlled parasitism? Discuss.
problem4) Enumerate the challenges that the aquatic plants had to meet for migrating to new terrestrial environments during the course of their evolution.
problem5) Discuss the salient lines of evolution of sporophytes in bryophytes. Cite exs and make their illustrations to support your discussion.
problem6) ‘Bryophytes are valuable to the gardeners and the horticulturists’. describe giving suitable exs.
problem7) Briefly describe with the help of labelled diagrams the xeromorphic and hydromorphic characters of Equisetum species.
problem8) Compare the elaters of Equisetum with that of Marchantia and Anthoceros.
problem9) What aspects of the process of reproduction and the structure of reproductive organs in Selaginella suggest that it approaches the seed habit? describe.
problem10) Polarity can be seen in which stages of the life cycle of the pteridophytes? Describe the manifestations of polarity in Equisetum