problem: Describe the principles underlying the technique of immunohistochemistry. Briefly describe how immunohistochemistry is used to aid the pathologist in reaching a diagnosis or advising on treatment planning in three different, name, pathological conditions that you have studied or limphoreticular system.
problem: ‘Special stains’ are often used in cellular pathology/cytology to assist the histopathologist or cytopathologist in imaging and identifying specific tissue or cell components in order to inform diagnosis. Define which components are identified by the ‘special stain’ and describe why this information would be helpful to the pathologist:
a) Renal biopsy stained with Miller’s elastic and Van Giesen (EVG) stain.
b) Cervical cytology specimen stained with Papanicoulau stain.
c) Lung biopsy stained Ziehl Neelsen stain
d) Lung biopsy stained with Grocott hexamine silver stain
e) Liver biopsy stained with Gordon and Sweets silver method
f) A stomach biopsy stained with toluidene blue
problem: Discuss the role of the cellular pathology laboratory in the diagnosis of skin diseases. In addition to considering the histopathology of a range of common skin diseases with some technical issues facing the biomedical scientist when dealing with skin biopsies.
problem: Describe the different types of epithelium found within the gastrointestinal tract and discuss how these structures relate to their function. Outline the types of cellular abnormalities that arise in the gastrointestinal epithelium, mentioning any special stains or techniques that might be performed by a cellular pathology laboratory to demonstrate them.
problem: prepare an account of the role of the cellular pathology laboratory in investigation of renal disease. Consideration of how ‘native’ and transplant biopsies are dealt with, with particular reference to any immunohistochemistry or ‘special stains’ that might be performed and why. Including discussion of methods of fixation ‘special stains’ and imaging using electron microscopy.
problem: Discuss the role of the cellular pathology laboratory in the investigation of diseases of the liver.