Answer the following problems:
problem1)a) Describe briefly how cephalochordates have adapted to their surroundings?
b) Mention at least four significant affinities between echinoderms and chordates.
problem2) Briefly describe the following terms.
ii) Diphycercal tail
iii) Swim bladder
iv) Living fossils
problem3)a) Where was the Archaeopteryx discovered? How did this fossil prove that birds share a common ancestory with the reptiles?
b) Describe the adaptation in bats to flying.
problem4)a) Describe keratinization in terrestrial vertebrates.
b) State the differences between digestive system of herbivores and carnivores.
problem5)a) Briefly discuss the mechanism of pulmonary respiration in frog.
b) prepare short note on foramen of Panizza.
problem6) prepare brief notes on:
i) Kidney blood circulation
ii) Types of mammalian uteri.
problem7)a) What are pit organs in reptiles? How do vipers and boas locate the prey?
b) Briefly prepare the functions of the following hormones.
i) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
problem8)a) describe the term ‘instinct’ and describe how instinctive behaviour develops.
b) Describe the phenomenon of ‘evolution of behaviour’.
problem9)a) Describe territorial behaviour and dominance hierarchy. How are these behaviour helpful in organizing vertebrate social organizations?
b) Mention two most significant benefits and two disadvantages of social life in animals.
problem10)a) Describe the mechanism of bioluminescence.
b) Describe the various ways by which limbless animals move.