problem 1: Define Irreversibility and the factors which cause irreversibility in the thermodynamic processes.
problem 2: A gas whose original pressure, volume and temperatures were 140 kN/m^{2}, 0.1 m^{3} and 25^{o} C respectively is compressed such that its new pressure is 700 kN/m^{2} and the new temperature is 60^{o}C. Find out the new volume of the gas.
problem 3: A closed system receives 105 kJ of heat while it performs 130 kJ of work. Find out the change in internal energy.
problem 4: An input of 1 kW – hr of work into a system into a closed system increases internal energy of the system by 2000 kJ. Find out how much heat is lost from the system.
problem 5: A quantity of gas occupies a volume of 0.28 m^{3} at a pressure of 120 kN/m^{2} and a temperature of 25^{o}C. The gas is compressed isothermally to a pressure of 600 kN/m^{2} and then expanded adiabatically to its initial volume. Find out:
a) Heat received or rejected during compression.
b) Mass of the gas and (c) the change in internal energy during expansion. Suppose γ = 1.4 and C_{p} = 1.0 kJ/kg K for this gas.
problem 6: The initial volume of 0.18 kg of a certain gas was 0.15 m^{3} at a temperature 15^{o}C and pressure of 1 kg/cm^{2}. After adiabatic compression to 0.056 m^{3} the pressure found to be 4 kg/cm^{2}. Find out:
a) Ratio of specific heats.
b) Change of internal energy.