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Define in detail the process of protein synthesis and mutation.

Genetics - From Genes to Proteins Mutations

Overview- Genetic information in DNA is transcribed to RNA as well as then translated into the amino acid sequence of a Protein.

1) Step 1 - Transcription: During the process of transcription the information in the DNA codons of a gene is transcribed into RN1)
Supposing that gene X has the DNA base sequence 3'-TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5'.

Q: describe what would be the base sequence of RNA after transcription occurs? (In this particular instance assume that the RNA product doesn't require processing to become mRN1) In other words the transcribed RNA develops the mRNA sequence.)

2) Step 2 - Translation- During protein synthesis at the ribosome the base arrangement of the mRNA codons is translated to the amino acid sequence of a protein.

Q: Using the mRNA that you recorded above use the genetic code table to control the resulting amino acid sequence?
What is the meaning of the first and last codons? What sense do these codons have for protein synthesis?

3) Mutations: A mutation is clear as a change in the base sequence of DN1) this may arise as a "mistake" in DNA replication, for ex.

Supposing that during DNA replication two mutant DNA sequences are produced as shown below.
For the 2 mutated DNA sequences you will examine how these changes might affect the sequence of amino acids in a protein.

Q: For each of the two you will requirement to first transcribe the mRNA and then use the genetic code table to determine the amino acid sequence.

Q: Then, describe why a change in amino acid sequence might affect protein function. Turn in your answer.

Here is the original order followed by two mutated sequences 1 and 2:

Original sequence 3'- TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5'

Mutated sequence 1) 3'-TACGCTTTAGTAGCCATT-5'

Mutated sequence 2) 3'-TAACCTTTACTAGGCACT-5'.

Biology, Academics

  • Category:- Biology
  • Reference No.:- M917596

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