+1-415-315-9853

info@mywordsolution.com

 Algebra Math Calculus Physics Chemistry Biology Earth Science Physiology History Humanities English Sociology Nursing Science

PART A: Crude Oil Distillation Design

Crude oil is separated into several fractions, each of these fractions are composed of many undefined hydrocarbon components. For simplicity, the crude oil is assumed to be a mixture of five real compounds and will be split into two streams only (top and bottom) using a
distillation column. The components in the crude, amount of feed of each component and their normal boiling
points are shown below.

Components        Feed, kmol/hr       Boiling Point, Tb, K
1. C7H16                15 371.6
2. C10H22                 10                       447.3
3. C12H26                 25                       489.5
4. C15H32                 25                       543.8
5. C18H38                 40                        589.5
In the distillate, there can be a maximum of 8% of component 4 (C15H32) and in the bottom,
there can be a maximum of 4% of component 3 (C12H26).
problem 1

find out:

(a) Minimum number of stages required for the separation

(b) Minimum reflux ratio for the separation

(c) Actual number of stages when the actual reflux ration is 1.4 times the minimum reflux ratio.

(d) Actual reflux ratio, when the actual number of stages is 17.

(e) If the actual reflux ratio is 50 times the minimum reflux ratio what happens to the actual number of stages. Comment on your results.

Pure component vapour ( vp P ) pressure (bar) can be find outd using the following Antoine equation:

log10Pvp =A-(B/C+T-273.15)  where T is K.

The Antoine constants are shown in the following table for each component.

Components          A          B               C
1. C7H16              4.02023    1263.909    216.432
2. C10H22            4.06853    1495.170    193.858
3. C12H26            4.12285    1639.270    181.840
4. C15H32            4.14849    1789.950    161.380
5. C18H38            4.12710     1894.300   143.300
The Vapour Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) constants ( i k ) can be find outd by Ki=Piv/P where P is the total pressure (1 bar). The relative volatility (αi,r ) of each component (i) with respect to a reference component (r) can be find outd by αi,r= ki/kr

PART B: Crude Oil Hydrotreating

A typical petroleum refinery is a complex chemical processing and manufacturing unit, with crude oil feedstock going in and refined fractions (products). Refining occurs by fractionation (distillation) of crude oil into a series of product streams based on boiling ranges for each fraction. Figure below shows a typical layout for an oil refinery.

Crude oil is a very complex material consisting of different hydrocarbon compounds in addition to sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and some metallic compounds, containing nickel, vanadium, iron and copper. The presence of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and metallic compounds in crude oil has a significant impact upon the quality of oil products in addition to the harm they can cause.

problem 2:

Study on your own (books, web based materials, journals) and

a) prepare a 100 words summary on the harmful effects of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and some metallic compounds, containing nickel, vanadium, iron and copper if they are present in the oil fractions obtained by crude oil distillation

b) prepare a 500 words summary on hytrotreating process and how it is currently carried out in existing refineries Study the references (electronic copies are attached with this coursework) and

c) prepare a 400 words summary on the new method of hydrotreating

While writing on items (b) & (c) reflect on the design & operational issues of the existing hytrotreating and the new hydrotreating processes.
You must list down all the references used. You must not exceed the word limit (penalty marks will apply).

Text in the report should be word-processed, but calculations may be neatly hand-written to save time. If you use spreadsheet calculations, you must describe the calculation method, illustrating your explanation with a sample hand calculation. Diagrams may be either hand- or computer-drawn.

• Category:- Biology
• Reference No.:- M91396

Have any Question?

## Related Questions in Biology

### 1what are the components of the cardiovascular system list

1. What are the components of the cardiovascular system? List them. 2. List two functions of the cardiovascular system. 3. Fill in the blank. Blood never leaves the blood vessels and does not exchange substances directly ...

### An irregular shaped machine component is held in the

An irregular shaped machine component is held in the position shown by three clamps. Knowing that FA = 940N, determine the magnitudes of the forces FB and FC exerted by the other two clamps.

### Given the following information for the isocitrate

Given the following information for the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction: [NAD+]/[NADH] = 9, [a-ketoglutarate] = 0.1 mM, [isocitrate] = 0.02 mM, assume standard conditions for CO2. a) Look up the E'° for the appropriate ...

### Positive and negative controls in scientific experimental

Positive and Negative Controls in Scientific Experimental design What are positive and negative controls? (Give definition and example) When is it useful to use positive or negative controls? (mast has 2 figures) What ar ...

### 1 which karyotypes shows a normal male individual ie a male

1. Which karyotype(s) shows a "normal" male individual (i.e., a male individual with no trisomies or monosomies)? A. A and B B. B only C. C only D. D only E. A, B, C & D 2. Which karyotype(s) shows an individual with Tur ...

### Genetics and reproductioncreate at least a 350-word blog

Genetics and Reproduction Create at least a 350-word blog post in Microsoft® Word in response to the following question: Female copperhead snakes have the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. In your opinion ...

### Demonstrate your understanding of the phenotypic expression

Demonstrate your understanding of the phenotypic expression of genes based on modes of inheritance. Explain the evolutionary significance of different modes of inheritance; for example an autosomal dominant allele which ...

### Cell biologyimagine that you are asked to tutor another

Cell Biology Imagine that you are asked to tutor another student on the fundamental concepts of chemistry, the scientific method, and the differences between a plant cell, an animal cell, and a bacterial cell. Create a 1 ...

### Biology class - must be 250 words must cite worktest your

Biology class - must be 250 words must cite work. Test your knowledge of cells and cell processes by dragging the name to the appropriate organelle in the three interactive websites Prokaryotes Basic Structure, The Plant ...

### Question 1 in drosophila melanogaster eyeless ey is a

Question 1: In Drosophila melanogaster, eyeless (ey) is a recessive trait in which the eyes are tiny or absent. The ey locus is found on chromosome 4. Monosomy and trisomy for this very small chromosome are compatible wi ...

• 13,132 Experts

## Looking for Assignment Help?

Start excelling in your Courses, Get help with Assignment

Write us your full requirement for evaluation and you will receive response within 20 minutes turnaround time.

### A cola-dispensing machine is set to dispense 9 ounces of

A cola-dispensing machine is set to dispense 9 ounces of cola per cup, with a standard deviation of 1.0 ounce. The manuf

### What is marketingbullwhat is marketing think back to your

What is Marketing? • "What is marketing"? Think back to your impressions before you started this class versus how you

### Question -your client david smith runs a small it

QUESTION - Your client, David Smith runs a small IT consulting business specialising in computer software and techno

### Inspection of a random sample of 22 aircraft showed that 15

Inspection of a random sample of 22 aircraft showed that 15 needed repairs to fix a wiring problem that might compromise

### Effective hrmquestionhow can an effective hrm system help

Effective HRM Question How can an effective HRM system help facilitate the achievement of an organization's strate