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problem 1:

Which one of the following statements is false?

a. Blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries is greater than the osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in the plasma within the glomerular capillaries.

b. If the osmotic pressure exerted by solutes in the peritubular capillaries is greater than the blood pressure in those capillaries, then water will be reabsorbed.

c. Endothelial cells in glomerular capillaries are highly permeable, facilitating filtration of fluid into Bowman's capsule.

d. Constriction of the afferent arteriole is likely to reduce the volume of filtrate appearing in Bowman's capsule.
e.  The efferent arteriole carries blood from the glomerular capillaries directly to the renal vein.

problem 2

Your doctor calls with the results of your urinalysis and tells you that they found proteinuria, the presence of abnormal amounts of protein in your urine sample. What could have caused this?

a. Infection and inflammation in the kidney.

b. Abnormally high concentration of plasma proteins.

c. Abnormal active transport of protein in the loop of Henle.

d. Abnormal active transport of protein in Bowman's capsule.

problem 3

Which one of the following statements about the nephron is false?

a. Most of the Na+ and Cl- ions in the filtrate is reabsorbed in the distal tubule.
b. The descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to water but the ascending limb is not.

c. Antidiuretic hormone increases the permeability of the distal tubules and collecting ducts to water.
d. So much salt (NaCl) is actively transported out of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle that fluid entering the distal tubule is actually hypoosmotic (more dilute) than normal body fluids.

problem 4

Most of the water filtered from the glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule is reabsorbed by...
a. active transport out of the distal tubule.
b. passive diffusion out of the proximal tubule.
c. passive diffusion out of the inner part of the collecting duct.
d. active transport out of the descending limb of the loop of Henle.
e. passive diffusion out of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

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