describe the detoxification of Acetaminophen, alcohol, and sodium nitrite with biotransformation of xenobiotics. Describe the Synthesis of fatty acid, Triglyceride, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C.
Scenario: An individual eats meats with much sodium nitrite, also drinks ethanol (alcohol), taking vitamins E and C, while also taking four tablets of 500 mg Tylenol. Expand the following components of the problem with brief organic chemistry explanations of what is happening and integrate the interactions of these ingested items.
1. Acetaminophen Phase I- Detoxification [show this to be occurring at the smooth ER] (cytochrome P 450) Phase II- Detoxification [show this occurring in the cytoplasm] (Glutathione SH) [Be sure to include GSH and explanation of why the conjugate basically stays in the blood] Pain reduction by blocking conversion of arachidonic acid.
2. Alcohol Detoxification
3. Sodium nitrite
Formation of carbocations
4. Potential Lipid Radicals formed from superoxide [may form from converting 02 into water] or hydroxyl radicals that could be affected by sodium nitrite's utilization of vitamin C. Show how a fatty acid is made and then show the assembly of a triglyceride Synthesis of fatty acid
Integration: How can liver damage result due to the intake of ethanol and Tylenol, but also how might liver damage occur even if ethanol was not ingested?