You are required to answer two of the following essays. You should read the questions carefully and answer each section of the queries. You should choose the two queries that you are feel most familiar to you. You should identify any sources---books, journal articles, websites, etc., that you used to address these queries in the body of your essay and provide a reference or bibliography page. Good luck!
1. The terms invisible politics, movement politics, and electoral politics have been introduced to identify or typify African American systems of political participation. Describe and analyze each of these methods and provide examples to amplify your analysis.
2. How do Black liberal and conservative philosophies differ or compare with White liberal and conservative philosophies in American politics? You should provide real examples to amplify your analysis.
3. Class antagonism between owners of capital and labor is a concern of socialist and capitalist theorists. However, neither classical nor neoclassical economists adequately factor in the impacts of race and racism. In what ways do slighting the implications of race and racism in economic transactions affect the validity or efficacy of modern economic theory. You are required to provide clear examples or case studies to support your position on this query.
4. "To Atone for Our Sins and Errors in Vietnam." Martin Luther King, Jr., 1967
a. In what ways were Martin L. King's politics in the years just prior to his assassination more radical?
b. What connection does King makes between the war in Vietnam and the struggle that he and others have been waging in the United States? Why does he say that the war was a cruel manipulation of the poor?
c. What reasons does King provide to explain the distrust the Vietnamese have for the United States? Why does he provide this perspective?
d. Some historians divide King's career into two phases: the early King who led desegregation campaigns and the latter King who fought against war, poverty, and racism. When Americans today celebrate Dr. King's birthday, which King do they celebrate, and why?
5. "There is no Revolution without the People," Amiri Baraka, 1972
a. In what ways have Amiri Baraka combined his artistic talents with his political activism?
b. How does Amiri Baraka interpret the notion "back to Africa?"
c. What is the Congress of African People? How does Baraka proposes it goes about achieving its goals?
d. Why does Baraka emphasize the need for Pan Africanist and Black Nationalist involvement in local politics?
e. Compare and contrast Baraka's views of the role of the artists with those of Paul Robeson.
6. Compare and contrast the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s with the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s. You should provide examples that illuminate and differentiate these black artistic movements. You should discuss the whether these artists make a distinction between the Eurocentric "art-for-art-sake" and the Afrocentric "art-for-peoples' sake."
7. Federal programs designed to promote and facilitate minority business enterprises have had little effect or success in the development of large multi-million dollar Black-owned businesses. Write an essay that support or refutes this assertion.
8. Identify and evaluate the risks associated with two forms of environmental racism experienced in many predominantly Black communities. You are required to provide real examples or case studies.