Understanding of Chemistry basics.
1. Boltzmann's critics claimed his work was unscientific because he______.
a. Presented his ideas in an excessively emotional manner
b. proposed that entropy constantly increased , an idea with depressing implications
c. used mathematical formulae that were incomprehensible to most of his peers
d. proposed hypotheses that were untestable and of little practical use
e. based his work on the behaviour of atoms , which cloud not then be observed.
2. When food packaging lists the calories contained in the contents; numbers supplied are actually "Calories", each of which is equivalent to____ standard calories.
v. one million
3. In physics and chemistry, work is defined as ______
a. performing a task
b. expenditure of energy
c. the increase in disorder against a force
e. an increase in temperature
4. A high - energy bond is one that
a. gives up energy to form less- stable, low-energy bonds
b. gives up energy to form more- stable, low-energy bonds
c. requires a large amount of energy to hold together
d. requires a large amount of energy to give off heat
e. requires a large amount of energy to break
5.________ energy is stored and ______ energy is energy of moving objects.
a. Kinetic; nuclear
b. Kinetic ; potential
c. Potential; nuclear
d. potential ; kinetic
e. Nuclear; potential
6. Which of the following would not be an ex of potential energy?
i. a rolling billiard ball
ii. a motionless car
iii. a relaxed muscle
iv. a stick of butter
v. a boulder at the edge of a cliff
7. Which of the following would not be an ex of kinetic energy?
a. a person running
b. a car moving at 5 miles per hour
c. a flying bird
d. a tornado
e. all of these are exs of kinetic energy
8. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that___.
a. the total energy of in any process is constant.
b. the total energy on earth available to do work is constant.
c. energy is destroyed in processes that generates heat
d. energy is created during nuclear fission.
e. a and b.
9. The Second of law of thermodynamics states that_______.
a. the energy available to do work in the universe constantly decreases.
b. no process involving the conversion of energy is completely efficient.
c. when a process creates heat, it destroys total energy.
d. a and b.
10. Which of the following describes a situation that violates the second law of thermodynamics?
2. A Small child(under duress) sorts her rock collection into groups ordered by hardness.
3. Phospholipid molecules spontaneously assemble into a bilayered membrane.
4. A low-friction machine runs indefinitely in an isolated system.
5. Living systems evolve from simple to complex forms if supplied with energy over a long period of time.