problem 1) What do you mean by hologram? How is it produced and how is the image reconstructed from it?
problem 2)a) What is an optical fiber? Describe the meaning of the terms:
1) Acceptance angle
2) Numerical aperture
3) Normalized frequency
4) Fractional change in refractive index
b) Core diameter of a graded index fiber is 0.05 mm and its numerical aperture is 0.22. If it carries light of wavelength 850 nm, what is the normalized frequency and what is the maximum number of modes which can be propagated through the fiber?
problem 3)a) describe the objective of conducting the Michelson Morley experiment? describe the experiment. How do you interpret its result?
b) A spaceship moving away from earth with velocity 0.6c fires a rocket whose velocity relative to the spaces hip is 0.7c away from the earth. What will be the velocity of the rocket, as observed from the earth?
problem 4)a) describe Moseley's law and what is its significance? How do you describe it on the basis of Bohr's theory?
b) The first order diffraction of X-rays is found to occur from a crystal at a glancing angle of 9°. Compute the wavelength of the X-rays and glancing angle for their second order diffraction if the inter-planar spacing in the crystal is 2.51 Å.
problem 5)a) prepare down the difference between phase and group velocities? Demonstrate that the wave group associated with a particle moves with the velocity of the particle. Also determine a relation between the phase and group velocities.
b) X-rays of wavelength 0.144 Å are scattered from a graphite block. Determine the maximum shift in their wavelength and the maximum energy imparted to the recoil electrons.
problem 6)a) What is Meissner effect? Describe the difference between Type-I and Type-II superconductors.
b) Find out the critical temperature for aluminium if the magnetic flux penetration depths for aluminium are 16 nm and 96 nm at 2.18 K and 8.1 K, respectively.