Western Civilization accomplished a relatively sophisticated level of organization throughout the High Middle Ages, ca. 900 - 1300 AD--why did medieval Europe give way to the early-modern era (post-1400 AD)?
I responding please consider the given events or movements; give illustrations of how traditional political, religious, or social power in Europe was challenged as the middle Ages declined:
a) The Crises of the 14th Century (100 Years War, Black Death and Church Schism)
b) The Renaissance
c) The Reformation
d) The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment