1. Sketch and describe different regions of a pressure-volume diagram of a full cardiac cycle.
2. Sketch and describe the relationship between cardiac output and end-diastolic volume.
3. The Lennard-Jones potential is given by
U= -(A/r^{6})+(B/r^{12})
where A and B depend on the depth of the potential well and the distance at which potential vanishes. Draw the profile of this potential (sketch without specific values) and describe its different regions.
4. The probability of dissociation of water into H^{+} and OH^{-} , to a good approximation, can be characterized by the Boltzmann distribution:
W ≈ e^{-Eα/kT}
If, at 27°C, 1.5 moles of water contain 1.5 X 10^{13 }pairs of H^{+} and OH^{-}, estimate the value of energy of dissociation.
5. Sketch and describe different regions of phase diagram of water (pressure vs. temperature).
6. describe how air inhalation and expiration takes place through pressure gradients inside and around lungs.
7. describe why Alveoli surface tension varies during respiration.