Understanding the basics of thermal chemistry.
1. The Second Law of Thermodynamics indicates that a system_______.
1. tends to convert energy into matter.
2. will tend to gain useful energy
3. can become more ordered only if energy is added
4. inevitably becomes more disordered
5. can convert heat into work, but cannot convert work into heat
2. If ATP transfers energy to a muscle protein, the total of the energy released from the ATP_________.
i. can be used by the muscle to perform work
ii. will include energy used to do work and energy released as heat
iii. will be released as heat
iv. will include energy used to do work and energy that is destroyed in the transfer
v. is greater than the amount of energy added to the ATP during its synthesis
3. The synthesis of a protein from its component amino acids______ violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics because_______.
1. does; proteins have more free energy than a collection of random amino acids
2. does; this process is both spontaneous and endergonic
3. does not; random amino acids have more free energy than an ordered protein
4. does not; protein synthesis requires the hydrolysis of ATP and GTP
4. The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water 10c is known as a____
a. mass balance
5. In general, spontaneous, exergonic processes result in an increase in____ and a decrease in_____
a. entropy; heat
b. entropy; free energy
c. free energy; heat
d. free energy; entropy
e. heat; entropy
6.If a chemical reaction is endergonic, it will______.
a. produce heat
b. result in an increase in entropy
c. require the addition of energy
d. occur spontaneously
e. b and c
7. Two processes are said to be coupled when_______
1. if one takes place, the other must also take place
2. one process contributes energy to another process
3. the energy released by one equals the energy taken up by the other
4. both are exergonic or both are endergonic
5. a and b.
8. In order to drive an endergonic reaction by coupling it with a second reaction , the second Law of Thermodynamics requires that the second reaction_______ energy than/as the first requires.
a. release more
b. release less
c. release the same amount of
d. requires less
e. require more
9. An ex of an endergonic process is the______; and ex of an exergonic process is the_____
a. phosphorylation of ADP to ATP; synthesis of starch
b. hydrolysis of proteins; synthesis of starch
c. hydrolysis of proteins; formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate
d. synthesis of starch; formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate
e. synthesis of starch; hydrolysis of proteins
10. For most biological processes, the driving exergonic reaction is the splitting of______