problem: For each sentence below state whether the modifiers that follow the verb are complements or adjuncts.
(i) Ignore the subject NP.
(ii) List comps and Adjuncts only. Do NOT prepare the sentence out in full.
ex: The cat looked disdainfully at the aardvark in the bar
i. IGNORE The cat [Subject NP]
ii. ANALYSE disdainfully at the aardvark in the bar
1) Mma Makutsi wielded her knife expertly.
2) Mma Ramotswe always avoided such people.
3) With a sudden movement, Neil whipped the stick over the snake’s back.
4) The peaches cost $4 a kilo in the store across the street.
5) The PNC took a more favorable position on the confederation with Jordan.
Adapted from: Alexander McCall Smith, 2006, Blue Shoes and Happiness
Walter LaQueur and Barry Rubin, eds., 2001, The Israel-Arab Reader
problem: Create ONE sentence that conforms to each of the following constructions:
1) COPULA INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE EQUATIVE
2) NON-COPULA POSITIVE DITRANSITIVE DOUBLE OBJECT
3) COPULA NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE [YES-NO]
4) N0N-COPULA MIDDLE DECLARATIVE
5) NON-COPULA INTERROGATIVE [WH] INTRANSITIVE LOCATIVE
problem: Identify all the modal verbs or modal constructions in the passage ‘Rules of the Road.’
Provide ONLY the modal verb or modal construction as it appears in the text.
List them in three rows, in the order they appear, under headings as follows:
In the following, one modal verb and one modal construction are in bold.
If a person is convicted of an “extradition offence” in another country, New Zealand may request that country to surrender the person . . . but all countries are able to (= CAN) take stronger measures against software pirates.
Rules of the Road:
If your vehicle has a non-retractable safety belt, you will need to adjust its length before you fasten it. There should be just enough room to slide the palm of your hand between the belt and your chest. You don’t have to wear a safety belt if you hold a doctor’s certificate....
At a crash site, the police may use signs, flash lights and flares to warn approaching drivers. When coming up to a crash site, slow down and take care. The road may be blocked and there could be injured people lying on it. The sign shown at top right...means you may not drive at more than 20km/h. The triangle shown at right is a warning triangle. It can be placed on the side of the road by any road user.
Extract from: The New Zealand Rules of the Road.
problem: Reprepare each of the sentences below according to the instructions.
ex: He runs two miles every day. It is excellent exercise.
REprepare THE 2 SENTENCES AS ONE, WITH UNDERLINED PASSAGE AS A GERUND NON-FINITE CLAUSE.
Answer: Running two miles every day is excellent exercise.
1. The logger chopped down the tree and disturbed a swarm of bees in their nest.
(REprepare WITH UNDERLINED PASSAGE AS NON-FINITE PARTICIPIAL CLAUSE.)
2. The hunters slaughtered the bears. That was a despicable act.
(REprepare THE 2 SENTENCES AS ONE, WITH UNDERLINED PASSAGE AS A NON-FINITE GERUND CLAUSE.)
3. Requiring a foreign language for a BA seems desirable.
(REprepare UNDERLINED PASSAGE AS A NON-FINITE INFINITIVE CLAUSE.)
4. Sarah plays poker very well. It is surprising that Sarah plays poker well.
(REprepare THE 2 SENTENCES AS ONE, WITH UNDERLINED PASSAGE AS A FINITE WH-CLAUSE.)
5. Franklin Roosevelt was stricken by polio as a young man, but he hid it from the public for many years.
(REprepare THE 2 SENTENCES AS ONE, WITH UNDERLINED PASSAGE AS A NON-FINITE PARTICIPIAL CLAUSE.)