+1-415-315-9853

info@mywordsolution.com

 Algebra Math Calculus Physics Chemistry Biology Earth Science Physiology History Humanities English Sociology Nursing Science

problem 1: Tides of solid ground and beam energy stability

a) Tidal forces (mostly gravity of moon and sun) create tides in the ocean but also deform the ‘solid’ earth. Establish a formula relating the beam energy change (assuming ultra-relativistic beam, i.e. ΔE/E = Δp/p) to a local change in the ground elevation (i.e. local change in earth radius).

b) find out by how much the beam energy of the ALS shifts assuming an average tidal elevation change of solid ground of about 25 cm (it really is that large!), an ALS beam energy of 1.9 GeV, an ALS circumference of 196.8 m and an ALS momentum compaction factor of 0.0008.

c) Compare this to the largest collider, LEP (predecessor of LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Its circumference is 27 km and the momentum compaction factor was roughly 0.0001. What is the energy change due to tides in that case? Does it scale with the circumference? Why/Why not?

d) Find the precision with which the Z0 mass and width was measured at LEP and compare to the effect of tides in c above. Conclusions?

problem 2: In designing a single turn, single kicker injection system, we have the choice of locating our kicker at two different positions, let us call those locations A and B. For location A, the betatron phase advance µ from the septum position is the usually optimal π/2 and the horizontal beta function at the septum is 4m. For B, µ is (5* π)/8, and βs is 8m. The beta function at the kicker βk is the same as the one at the septum in both cases.

a) Where would you place the kicker in order to minimize the necessary kick angle θ and therefore the required kicker magnet strength – location A or B? Why?

b) If the required beam stay clear at the septum imposes a distance between the injected beam trajectory and the closed orbit of xS=2 cm, what is the required kicker strength θ to completely remove any remaining angle after passing the kicker (i.e. to put the injected beam onto the closed orbit)?

Assume the beta function at the septum and the kicker is 5 m and the phase advance is π/2 for this case.

c) Based on the dependence of the size and divergence of the beam on the lattice functions:

σ = √βε  with β the beta function and ε the (invariant) emittance

σ' = √γε  with γ = (1+α2)/β, α' = −β/2

describe qualitatively why placing an injection kicker at a location with high beta function (and correspondingly small alpha function) reduces the required kicker strength.

d) Similarly, give your qualitative explanation, why placing a septum magnet with a septum sheet of a given, finite thickness at a location with high beta function is advantageous.

• Category:- Physics
• Reference No.:- M93895

Have any Question?

## Related Questions in Physics

### The birthday problem may be related to a coding scheme

The birthday problem may be related to a coding scheme. Assume we wish to convey a message to an outsider identifying one of the twenty-four people. We could simply communicate a number s from A S = {1, 2, . . . , 24}, h ...

### Implement this learning rule and investigate empirically

Implement this learning rule and investigate empirically its capacity for memorizing random patterns; also compare its avalanche properties with those of the Hebb rule.

### As a spacecraft approaches a planet the rocket engines on

As a spacecraft approaches a planet, the rocket engines on it are fired (turned on) to slow it down so it will go into orbit around the planet. The spacecraft's mass is 2,525 kg and the thrust (force) of the rocket engin ...

### The acceleration due to gravity g is given bywhere m is the

The acceleration due to gravity, g, is given by where M is the mass of the earth, r is the distance from the center of the earth, and G is the universal gravitational constant. (a) Show that when r changes by Δr, the cha ...

### According to car and driver an alfa romeo going at 70 mph

According to Car and Driver, an Alfa Romeo going at 70 mph requires 177 feet to stop. Assuming that the stopping distance is proportional to the square of velocity, find the stopping distances required by an Alfa Romeo g ...

### A np hetero junction diode of the same donor and acceptor

A n+/p hetero junction diode of the same donor and acceptor dopant concentrations and areas as the Si homo junction diode above is known to have a layer of interfacial traps located at the metallurgical boundary. What is ...

### A snow skier is skiing across a flat plain with a velocity

A snow skier is skiing across a flat plain with a velocity of 3.5 m/s. Without knowing because the snowfall is so thick he skis off a cliff with vertical drop of 58m. The skiers mass with skis and all is 92kg. What is th ...

### Let x be an ensemble with px 01 02 03 04 the ensemble is

Let X be an ensemble with PX = {0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4}. The ensemble is encoded using the symbol code C = {0001, 001, 01, 1}. Consider the code word corresponding to x ∈ X N , where N is large. (a) Compute the entropy of th ...

What influence does mass media have? Frame your answer using sociological perspective.

### On may 9 2007 cbs evening news had a 43 point rating

On May 9, 2007, CBS Evening News had a 4.3 point rating. (Ratings measure the number of viewers.) News executives estimated that a 0.1 drop in the ratings for the CBS Evening News corresponds to a \$5.5 million drop in re ...

• 13,132 Experts

## Looking for Assignment Help?

Start excelling in your Courses, Get help with Assignment

Write us your full requirement for evaluation and you will receive response within 20 minutes turnaround time.

### Section onea in an atwood machine suppose two objects of

SECTION ONE (a) In an Atwood Machine, suppose two objects of unequal mass are hung vertically over a frictionless

### Part 1you work in hr for a company that operates a factory

Part 1: You work in HR for a company that operates a factory manufacturing fiberglass. There are several hundred empl

### Details on advanced accounting paperthis paper is intended

DETAILS ON ADVANCED ACCOUNTING PAPER This paper is intended for students to apply the theoretical knowledge around ac

### Create a provider database and related reports and queries

Create a provider database and related reports and queries to capture contact information for potential PC component pro

### Describe what you learned about the impact of economic

Describe what you learned about the impact of economic, social, and demographic trends affecting the US labor environmen