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describe a list of internet resources available on the various art forms from baroque and enlightenment and romantic age

Presentation: Art from the Baroque, Enlightenment and Romantic Age


The latter part of the sixteenth century marked the beginning emergence of the scientific revolution. The impact of sharp philosophical and economic change on the conventions of art is significant. This relationship between paradigmatic social change and art production is explored by focusing on the artifacts of the Baroque Period, the Enlightenment, and Romantic Age.

The Baroque Period:

The baroque style is easily identifiable. For ex, "aristocratic baroque" reflected the visions and purposes of an aristocracy increasingly threatened by the emergent power of the petty bourgeoisie. Consider the work of Rubens, which is noted for vast, overwhelming paintings and fleshy female nudes that he created while under commission from Maria de' Medici. Art, however, also reflected the visions and objectives of the new and wealthy middle class as exemplified most clearly by the works of Rembrandt. For Rembrandt, the quality of art could be gauged not only on its own merits but by its value on the open market. The splendor of Baroque art, however, was not limited to two-dimensional form. Baroque architecture, for ex, was as ornamental as two-dimensional forms, but because of its scale, the effect was one of dramatic spectacle, as exemplified by the Palace of Versailles and the Taj Mahal. The performing arts were no exception to the rule of change and expressive articulation during the Baroque Period. This era witnessed the emergence of masterworks by Bach and Vivaldi, the emergence of the concerto, the sonata, the cantata, and significantly, opera.

The Enlightenment:

The eighteenth century has often been called the "Age of the Enlightenment," although historical boundaries are often arbitrary and meaningless in that production and life do not radically change from one century marker to another. Given these limitations, the eighteenth century is highlighted by certain philosophical tenets and artistic tendencies. In fact, faith in science, in human rights arising from natural law, in human reason and progress were touchstones of eighteenth century thought. Additionally, the death of Louis XIV in 1715 brought to a close a courtly tradition that had championed baroque art and marked the emergence of "sociability", a return to antiquity and the simplicity of nature highlighted in the "Rococo style."
The aristocratic frivolity of rococo style was heavily counterbalanced by the biting satire and social comment of humanitarian painters such as William Hogarth and ballad opera musicians such as John Gay.

The Romantic Age:

Many painters willingly championed the cause of Romanticism. The Romantic style had, after all, an emotional appeal, and its subjects tended towards the picturesque, including nature, Gothic images, and often, the macabre. In seeking to break the geometric principles of classical composition, Romantic compositions moved towards fragmentation of images.

Romantic architecture featured a style now referred to as "picturesque." Eastern influence, for ex, abounded in John Nash's Royal Pavilion, but the term picturesque also applies to the "Houses of Parliament" which can only be described as strikingly modern.

Finally, music in the Romantic age provided the medium in which many found an unrivaled opportunity to express emotion. In many ways, the "art song," or Lied, characterizes Romantic music which linked music directly to literature and emphasized organized accompaniments by piano, ultimately leading to compositions written exclusively for the piano as a solo instrument. In fact, the Romantic era is accentuated by the masterworks of Shubert, Liszt, Chopin, Strauss, and Tchaikovsky. Perhaps the crowning musical force of the Romantic Era, however, is the production of "Grand Opera" and the far-reaching contributions of Verdi and Wagner to the world of operatic artistic form.

What are the general themes represented in art forms during this time period?

The general themes of this era move rather rapidly through realism, naturalism, impressionism, expressionism, modernity to postmodernity. Ethnic themes, social causes, and cultural ideologies emerge within a variety of art forms. Let's examine some of these themes by viewing a few representative works.


Moulin de la Galette, Pierre Auguste Renoir. Musee d\\\'Orsay, Paris, France.
Date: 1876

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Interior, German Pavillion, International Exposition, Barcelona, Spain.
Date: 1929

Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, Centre National d\\\'Arte et de Culture Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.
Date: 1971-77

Langston Hughes. Realists sought to avoid idealism and tended to stress the commonplace and often sordid or brutal aspects of life. Concurrently, symbolism came into being as a critical counter-movement against realism itself. Between 1914 and 1939 the novel came into the fore as the literary medium. Subject matter was enriched and so was technique. In it is the postmodern era, however, that numerous and multiple styles and techniques are honored and privileged.


Early theatre presented naturalism, realism and symbolism, but by the end of World War II, theatre gave way to expressionism, epic theatre and absurdism. In the postmodern era we saw for the first time, performance art and pluralistic performances with multiple media.


The ethnic foundations of dance began to be seriously honored and taken into account in the world of "haute" dance, but this in no way implies that ballet did not remain at the forefront of the dance world. It was the emergence of Isadora Duncan that ermanently altered the landscape of dance and moved it into the realm of modern dance.


Music followed the same themes as its visual counterparts, early naturalism and impression. But, music just like art, began to experience radical departures in style leading to the rejection of tonality and the emergence of jazz. The postmodern musical world is pluralistic and features combinations heretofore never heard.


It is during this era that cinema emerges as a major artistic form. Moving rather rapidly from black and white silent films into the postmodern film of today, technology and artistry has moved this art in diverse and incredibly fast fashions.

Where can I locate some of the major pieces representative of this era?

English, Academics

  • Category:- English
  • Reference No.:- M916096

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