Describe the process of protein synthesis.
Genetics - From Genes to Proteins Mutations
Summary- Genetic information in DNA is transcribed to RNA as well as then translated into the amino acid sequence of a Protein.
A) Step 1 - Transcription- During the process of transcription and the information in the DNA codons of a gene is transcribed into RNA.
Supposing that gene X has the DNA base sequence 3'-TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5'.
problem: describe what would be the base sequence of RNA after transcription occurs? Turn this in.
(In this particular instance, presume that the RNA product doesn't require processing to become mRNA. Otherwise the transcribed RNA becomes the mRNA sequence.)
B) Step 2 - Translation: During protein synthesis at the ribosome, the base sequence of the mRNA codons is translated to the amino acid sequence of a protein.
problem: Using the mRNA that you transcribed above utilize the genetic code table to determine the resulting amino acid sequence.
Turn this in.
And turn in the answer to these problems-
What is the meaning of the first and last codons? What significance do these codons have for protein synthesis?
C) Mutations: A mutation is definite as a change in the base sequence of DNA. This may take place as a mistake in DNA replication, for instance.
Supposing that during DNA replication two mutant DNA orders are produced as shown below.
For the 2 mutated DNA sequences you will examine how these changes might affect the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
problem: For each of the two you will want to first transcribe the mRNA as well as then use the genetic code table to determine the amino acid sequence.
Turn these in as well as state whether the protein sequence changes for each.
problem: Then, describe why a change in amino acid sequence might affect protein function. Turn in your answer.
Here is the original sequence surveyed by two mutated sequences, 1 and 2:
Original sequence 3'- TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5'
Mutated sequence 1) 3'-TACGCTTTAGTAGCCATT-5'
Mutated sequence 2) 3'-TAACCTTTACTAGGCACT-5'