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1) Define temporary hardness and permanent hardness of water.

2) Define the following units of hardness:

a) ppm.

b) mg/l.

3) Give any 3 functions of lime in lime soda process.

4) Give the functions of soda ash in lime soda process.

5) Define osmosis and reverse osmosis.

6) How priming can be avoided in boilers.

7) How foaming can be avoided in boilers.

8) What are zeolites. Give 1 eg of natural zeolite.

9) Compare permutit process and lime soda process based on the following points:

a) Residual hardness.

b) Na salts.

c) Water containing suspended matter.

d) Treatment of acidic water.

10) describe hot lime soda process. 

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  • Category:- Chemistry
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